open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
Original article
Submitted: 2021-11-30
Accepted: 2022-02-03
Published online: 2022-02-17
Get Citation

Morphological classification and measurement of the glenoid cavity using three-dimensional reconstruction in a Chinese population

Y. Chen1, J. Xiong2, W. Chen1, D. Xie1, Y. Zhang1, Y. Mo1, X. Gu1, L. Zhang3456
·
Pubmed: 35187632
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):325-331.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Orthopaedics, Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital of Yibing, Yibing, China
  2. School of Clinical Medicine, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China
  3. Department of Orthopaedics, The Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China
  4. Centre for Orthopaedic Diseases Research, Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China
  5. Expert Workstation in Luzhou, Luzhou, China
  6. Clinical Base of Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Guangdong Province Medical 3D Printing Application Transformation Engineering Technology Research Centre, Luzhou, China

open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2021-11-30
Accepted: 2022-02-03
Published online: 2022-02-17

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the various shapes and
record the morphometric data of the glenoid cavity in a Chinese population.
Materials and methods: A total of 501 scapulae, 247 left and 254 right, were
analysed. We classified the shape of the glenoid cavity as type I (pear-shaped),
type II (oval-shaped), type III (teardrop-shaped), type IV (calabash-shaped) or
type V (inverted comma-shaped). Four defined parameters, the superior-inferior
glenoid diameter (AB), upper anterior-posterior glenoid diameter (CD), lower
anterior-posterior glenoid diameter (EF) and glenoid index (GI), were measured,
and five shapes were classified via three-dimensional reconstruction.
Results: The mean AB, CD, EF and GI values of the glenoid were 3.51 ± 0.41 cm,
1.95 ± 0.28 cm, 2.60 ± 0.34 cm, and 1.35 ± 0.12 cm, respectively. The AB
value of type II glenoid cavities was significantly smaller than that of type I and
III glenoid cavities (p < 0.05), but the GI value of type II glenoid cavities was
larger than that of type III cavities (p < 0.05). The CD value showed a difference
between type I and type III glenoid cavities (p < 0.05). For the EF parameter, the
values of type III glenoid cavities were significantly larger than those of type I and II
glenoid cavities (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Measuring and observing the variety of shapes and sizes of the
glenoid cavity in Chinese people is conducive to for better understand its morphological
features. This information can also guide surgeons in the design and selection
of suitable prostheses for total shoulder arthroplasty in the Chinese population in
order to reduce postoperative complications.

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the various shapes and
record the morphometric data of the glenoid cavity in a Chinese population.
Materials and methods: A total of 501 scapulae, 247 left and 254 right, were
analysed. We classified the shape of the glenoid cavity as type I (pear-shaped),
type II (oval-shaped), type III (teardrop-shaped), type IV (calabash-shaped) or
type V (inverted comma-shaped). Four defined parameters, the superior-inferior
glenoid diameter (AB), upper anterior-posterior glenoid diameter (CD), lower
anterior-posterior glenoid diameter (EF) and glenoid index (GI), were measured,
and five shapes were classified via three-dimensional reconstruction.
Results: The mean AB, CD, EF and GI values of the glenoid were 3.51 ± 0.41 cm,
1.95 ± 0.28 cm, 2.60 ± 0.34 cm, and 1.35 ± 0.12 cm, respectively. The AB
value of type II glenoid cavities was significantly smaller than that of type I and
III glenoid cavities (p < 0.05), but the GI value of type II glenoid cavities was
larger than that of type III cavities (p < 0.05). The CD value showed a difference
between type I and type III glenoid cavities (p < 0.05). For the EF parameter, the
values of type III glenoid cavities were significantly larger than those of type I and II
glenoid cavities (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Measuring and observing the variety of shapes and sizes of the
glenoid cavity in Chinese people is conducive to for better understand its morphological
features. This information can also guide surgeons in the design and selection
of suitable prostheses for total shoulder arthroplasty in the Chinese population in
order to reduce postoperative complications.

Get Citation

Keywords

glenoid cavity, anatomic variation, classification, morphology, three-dimensional reconstruction, glenoid notch

About this article
Title

Morphological classification and measurement of the glenoid cavity using three-dimensional reconstruction in a Chinese population

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)

Article type

Original article

Pages

325-331

Published online

2022-02-17

Page views

2349

Article views/downloads

1226

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0017

Pubmed

35187632

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):325-331.

Keywords

glenoid cavity
anatomic variation
classification
morphology
three-dimensional reconstruction
glenoid notch

Authors

Y. Chen
J. Xiong
W. Chen
D. Xie
Y. Zhang
Y. Mo
X. Gu
L. Zhang

References (23)
  1. Alentorn-Geli E, Samitier G, Torrens C, et al. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Part 2: Systematic review of reoperations, revisions, problems, and complications. Int J Shoulder Surg. 2015; 9(2): 60–67.
  2. Anetzberger H, Putz R. The scapula: principles of construction and stress. Acta Anat (Basel). 1997; 156(1): 70–80.
  3. Boileau P, Gauci MO, Wagner ER, et al. The reverse shoulder arthroplasty angle: a new measurement of glenoid inclination for reverse shoulder arthroplasty. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2019; 28(7): 1281–1290.
  4. Checroun AJ, Hawkins C, Kummer FJ, et al. Fit of current glenoid component designs: an anatomic cadaver study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2002; 11(6): 614–617.
  5. De Wilde LF. CORR Insights®: The Muscle Cross-sectional Area on MRI of the Shoulder Can Predict Muscle Volume: An MRI Study in Cadavers. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2020; 478(4): 884–885.
  6. El-Din WA, Ali MH. A morphometric study of the patterns and variations of the acromion and glenoid cavity of the scapulae in Egyptian population. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015; 9(8): AC08–AC11.
  7. Friedman RJ, Hawthorne KB, Genez BM. The use of computerized tomography in the measurement of glenoid version. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1992; 74(7): 1032–1037.
  8. Fulin P, Kysilko M, Pokorny D, et al. Study of the variability of scapular inclination and the glenoid version - considerations for preoperative planning: clinical-radiological study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017; 18(1): 16.
  9. Gilbert F, Eden L, Meffert R, et al. Intra- and interobserver reliability of glenoid fracture classifications by Ideberg, Euler and AO. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018; 19(1): 89.
  10. Grieshober JA, Palmer JE, Kim H, et al. Comparison of curved and straight anchor insertion for bankart repair. Orthopedics. 2019; 42(2): e242–e246.
  11. Hawi N, Reinhold A, Suero EM, et al. The anatomic basis for the arthroscopic latarjet procedure: a cadaveric study. Am J Sports Med. 2016; 44(2): 497–503.
  12. Huber CE. Zur Form und GrÖße der Cavitas glenoidalis. Anatomischer Anzeiger. 1991; 172: 137–142.
  13. Klemt C, Toderita D, Nolte D, et al. The critical size of a defect in the glenoid causing anterior instability of the shoulder after a Bankart repair, under physiological joint loading. Bone Joint J. 2019; 101-B(1): 68–74.
  14. Longo UG, Petrillo S, Berton A, et al. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for the management of fractures of the proximal humerus: a systematic review. Musculoskelet Surg. 2016; 100(2): 83–91.
  15. Mamatha T, Pai SR, Murlimanju BV, et al. Morphometry of glenoid cavity. Online J Health Allied Scs. 2011: 10.
  16. Merkle TP, Beckmann N, Bruckner T, et al. Shoulder joint replacement can improve quality of life and outcome in patients with dysmelia: a case series. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016; 17: 185.
  17. Moineau G, Levigne C, Boileau P, et al. Three-dimensional measurement method of arthritic glenoid cavity morphology: feasibility and reproducibility. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2012; 98(6 Suppl): S139–S145.
  18. Owens BD, Campbell SE, Cameron KL. Risk factors for anterior glenohumeral instability. Am J Sports Med. 2014; 42(11): 2591–2596.
  19. Prescher A, Klümpen T. The glenoid notch and its relation to the shape of the glenoid cavity of the scapula. J Anat. 1997; 190(Pt 3): 457–460.
  20. Rajput HB, Vyas KK, Shroff BD. A study of morphological patterns of glenoid cavity of scapula. National J Med Rese. 2012; 2: 504–507.
  21. Schrumpf M, Maak T, Hammoud S, et al. The glenoid in total shoulder arthroplasty. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2011; 4(4): 191–199.
  22. Vezeridis PS, Ishmael CR, Jones KJ, et al. Glenohumeral dislocation arthropathy: etiology, diagnosis, and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2019; 27(7): 227–235.
  23. Zumstein V, Kraljević M, Hoechel S, et al. The glenohumeral joint - a mismatching system? A morphological analysis of the cartilaginous and osseous curvature of the humeral head and the glenoid cavity. J Orthop Surg Res. 2014; 9: 34–39.

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By VM Media Group sp. z o.o., Grupa Via Medica, Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.: +48 58 320 94 94, faks: +48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl