open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
Original article
Submitted: 2021-08-27
Accepted: 2021-09-14
Published online: 2022-04-05
Get Citation

Venous supply of horseshoe kidneys and normal kidneys: an angio-multislice computed tomography-based study

M. Majos1, M. Polguj2, L. Stefańczyk1, A. Majos3
·
Pubmed: 35411544
·
Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):368-374.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Radiology, Barlicki University Hospital, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
  2. Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Chair of Anatomy and Histology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
  3. Department of Radiological and Isotopic Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University of Lodz, Poland

open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Submitted: 2021-08-27
Accepted: 2021-09-14
Published online: 2022-04-05

Abstract

Background: Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is a common developmental anomaly which can be associated with many atypical anatomical variants of blood supply. The aim of this study was to identify the anatomical variants of renal veins supplying HSK, with particular emphasis on their relationship with the arterial system. Materials and methods: The analysis included 94 patients with HSK and 248 persons with normal kidneys (NK). Based on computed tomography-angiography, the number of renal arteries and veins was determined, along with the levels the arteries branched off the aorta and the veins communicated to their parental vessels. Results: Four hundred and twenty-three renal arteries (4.5 per person) and 364 renal veins (3.78 per persons) were found in HSK group (p = 0.004), as compared with 598 arteries (2.41 per person) and 567 veins (2.29 per person) in the NK group (p = 0.025). Mean number of renal veins in women with HSK was higher than in men (4.11 vs. 3.72 per patient, p = 0.03). In the HSK group, the number of renal arteries correlated significantly with the number of renal veins only among men (ks = 0.35, p = 0.009). In patients with NK, significant correlations between the number of renal arteries and renal veins were found both in the whole group and among men and women. Conclusions: Horseshoe kidneys are drained by a higher number of renal veins than NK, especially in women; this also refers to accessory renal veins. The number of renal veins for HSK is less dependent on the number of corresponding arteries than these for NK.

Abstract

Background: Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is a common developmental anomaly which can be associated with many atypical anatomical variants of blood supply. The aim of this study was to identify the anatomical variants of renal veins supplying HSK, with particular emphasis on their relationship with the arterial system. Materials and methods: The analysis included 94 patients with HSK and 248 persons with normal kidneys (NK). Based on computed tomography-angiography, the number of renal arteries and veins was determined, along with the levels the arteries branched off the aorta and the veins communicated to their parental vessels. Results: Four hundred and twenty-three renal arteries (4.5 per person) and 364 renal veins (3.78 per persons) were found in HSK group (p = 0.004), as compared with 598 arteries (2.41 per person) and 567 veins (2.29 per person) in the NK group (p = 0.025). Mean number of renal veins in women with HSK was higher than in men (4.11 vs. 3.72 per patient, p = 0.03). In the HSK group, the number of renal arteries correlated significantly with the number of renal veins only among men (ks = 0.35, p = 0.009). In patients with NK, significant correlations between the number of renal arteries and renal veins were found both in the whole group and among men and women. Conclusions: Horseshoe kidneys are drained by a higher number of renal veins than NK, especially in women; this also refers to accessory renal veins. The number of renal veins for HSK is less dependent on the number of corresponding arteries than these for NK.

Get Citation

Keywords

horseshoe kidney, vascular variations, renal vein

About this article
Title

Venous supply of horseshoe kidneys and normal kidneys: an angio-multislice computed tomography-based study

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 82, No 2 (2023)

Article type

Original article

Pages

368-374

Published online

2022-04-05

Page views

2157

Article views/downloads

704

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2022.0039

Pubmed

35411544

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2023;82(2):368-374.

Keywords

horseshoe kidney
vascular variations
renal vein

Authors

M. Majos
M. Polguj
L. Stefańczyk
A. Majos

References (26)
  1. Aytac SK, Yigit H, Sancak T, et al. Correlation between the diameter of the main renal artery and the presence of an accessory renal artery: sonographic and angiographic evaluation. J Ultrasound Med. 2003; 22(5): 433–9; quiz 440.
  2. Boatman DL, Cornell SH, Kölln CP. The arterial supply of horseshoe kidneys. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1971; 113(3): 447–451.
  3. Bozgeyik Z, Ozdemir H, Orhan I, et al. Pseudoaneurysm and renal arteriovenous fistula after nephrectomy: two cases treated by transcatheter coil embolization. Emerg Radiol. 2008; 15(2): 119–122.
  4. Eisendrath DN, Phifer FM, Culver HB. Horseshore kidney. Ann Surg. 1925; 82(5): 735–764.
  5. Glodny B, Petersen J, Hofmann KJ, et al. Kidney fusion anomalies revisited: clinical and radiological analysis of 209 cases of crossed fused ectopia and horseshoe kidney. BJU Int. 2009; 103(2): 224–235.
  6. Gluecker TM, Mayr M, Schwarz J, et al. Comparison of CT angiography with MR angiography in the preoperative assessment of living kidney donors. Transplantation. 2008; 86(9): 1249–1256.
  7. Gulas E, Wysiadecki G, Cecot T, et al. Accessory (multiple) renal arteries - Differences in frequency according to population, visualizing techniques and stage of morphological development. Vascular. 2016; 24(5): 531–537.
  8. Guvendi B, Ogul H. Left renal vein compression and horseshoe kidney: an extraordinary association. Med Princ Pract. 2016; 25(5): 494–496.
  9. Ichikawa T, Kawada S, Koizumi J, et al. Major venous anomalies are frequently associated with horseshoe kidneys. Circ J. 2011; 75(12): 2872–2877.
  10. Ichikawa T, Sekiguchi T, Kawada S, et al. Study of the association between an anomalous superior vena cava and horseshoe kidney. Circ J. 2012; 76(5): 1253–1258.
  11. Iimura A, Oguchi T, Shibata M, et al. Morphological observation of the horseshoe kidney with circumaortic venous ring. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2012; 89(3): 67–74.
  12. Kawamoto S, Lawler LP, Fishman EK. Evaluation of the renal venous system on late arterial and venous phase images with MDCT angiography in potential living laparoscopic renal donors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005; 184(2): 539–545.
  13. Koc Z, Ulusan S, Oguzkurt L, et al. Venous variants and anomalies on routine abdominal multi-detector row CT. Eur J Radiol. 2007; 61(2): 267–278.
  14. Majos M, Polguj M, Szemraj-Rogucka Z, et al. The level of origin of renal arteries in horseshoe kidney vs. in separated kidneys: CT-based study. Surg Radiol Anat. 2018; 40(10): 1185–1191.
  15. Majos M, Majos A, Polguj M, et al. Diameters of arteries supplying horseshoe kidneys and the level they branch off their parental vessels: a CT-angiographic study. J Clin Med. 2019; 8(4).
  16. Monzen Y, Mori H, Wakisaka M, et al. Hydronephrosis caused by a left renal vein in a patient with horseshoe kidney: a case report. Radiat Med. 1993 ; 11(3): 95–97.
  17. Pawar AS, Thongprayoon C, Cheungpasitporn W, et al. Incidence and characteristics of kidney stones in patients with horseshoe kidney: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Urol Ann. 2018; 10(1): 87–93.
  18. Pollak R, Prusak BF, Mozes MF. Anatomic abnormalities of cadaver kidneys procured for purposes of transplantation. Am Surg. 1986; 52(5): 233–235.
  19. Sampaio FJ, Passos MA. Renal arteries: anatomic study for surgical and radiological practice. Surg Radiol Anat. 1992; 14(2): 113–117.
  20. Satyapal KS. Classification of the drainage patterns of the renal veins. J Anat. 1995; 186 ( Pt 2)(Pt 2): 329–333.
  21. Stroomsma O, Kooystra G, Schurink GWH. Manegement of aortic aneurysm in the presence of a horseshoe kidney. Br J Surg. 2001; 88: 500–509.
  22. Staśkiewicz G, Jajko K, Torres K, et al. Supernumerary renal vessels: analysis of frequency and configuration in 996 computed tomography studies. Folia Morphol. 2016; 75(2): 245–250.
  23. Taghavi K, Kirkpatrick J, Mirjalili SA. The horseshoe kidney: surgical anatomy and embryology. J Pediatr Urol. 2016; 12(5): 275–280.
  24. Tatarano S, Enokida H, Yamada Y, et al. Anatomical variations of the left renal vein during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Transplant Proc. 2019; 51(5): 1311–1313.
  25. Trigaux JP, Vandroogenbroek S, De Wispelaere JF, et al. Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein: evaluation with spiral CT. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1998; 9(2): 339–345.
  26. Uehara A, Suzuki T, Hase S, et al. Kidney autotransplantation for the treatment of renal artery occlusion after endovascular aortic repair: a case report. BMC Nephrol. 2019; 20(1): 160.

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By VM Media Group sp. z o.o., Grupa Via Medica, Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.: +48 58 320 94 94, faks: +48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl