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Original article
Published online: 2021-10-07
Submitted: 2021-08-06
Accepted: 2021-09-20
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Peri-hilar branching pattern and variations of the renal artery among Indian kidney donors using pre-operative computed tomography angiography: an anatomical study and review

M. Kumaresan1, J. Saikarthik2, A. Sangeetha3, I. Saraswathi4, K. Senthil Kumar4, P. Roselin5
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2021.0103
·
Pubmed: 34642929
Affiliations
  1. Department of Anatomy, Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, SIMATS University, Chennai, India
  2. Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Education, College of Dentistry, Majmaah University, Al Zulfi, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  3. Department of Physiology, Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, SIMATS University, Chennai, India
  4. Department of Physiology, Madha Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, India
  5. Department of Radiology and Imaging, Madha Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, India

open access

Ahead of Print
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2021-10-07
Submitted: 2021-08-06
Accepted: 2021-09-20

Abstract

Background: The peri-hilar branching pattern of renal arteries and variations such as accessory renal artery and early branching of the renal artery are important factors to be evaluated preoperatively to minimize potential complications during renal transplantation and renal surgeries. The present was done to study the perihilar branching pattern of the renal artery and variations of the renal artery in kidney donors. Materials and methods: 198 kidneys from 99 donors were analyzed using pre-operative CT renal angiograms prospectively, over 1 year 2 months. Results: Based on the branching pattern of primary and secondary branches of renal arteries, we identified 8 cardinal and 10 minor peri-hilar branching patterns. Type I (duplicated fork) peri- hilar branching pattern was the most found (70.2%) among 198 kidneys, followed by type II (triplicated fork) (19.2%) and type III (ladder) (10.6%). Duplicated fork pattern was common in both the right renal artery (75.7%) and left renal artery (64.6%) respectively.  The prevalence of accessory renal artery was 39.4% with hilar artery at 21.2% and polar artery at 18.2%, and the prevalence of early division of renal artery was 20.2%. No statistical significance was associated between gender and laterality in the prevalence of both early division and accessory renal arteries (P > 0.05). Early division of renal artery was more frequent in females (28%) whilst accessory renal arteries were more common in males (40.7%). Conclusions: The present study showed a consistent peri-hilar branching pattern with high individual variability among Indian renal donors. The knowledge about the peri-hilar branching pattern as well as renal artery variations conferred by this study would greatly compliment urological surgeons during renal transplant surgeries.

Abstract

Background: The peri-hilar branching pattern of renal arteries and variations such as accessory renal artery and early branching of the renal artery are important factors to be evaluated preoperatively to minimize potential complications during renal transplantation and renal surgeries. The present was done to study the perihilar branching pattern of the renal artery and variations of the renal artery in kidney donors. Materials and methods: 198 kidneys from 99 donors were analyzed using pre-operative CT renal angiograms prospectively, over 1 year 2 months. Results: Based on the branching pattern of primary and secondary branches of renal arteries, we identified 8 cardinal and 10 minor peri-hilar branching patterns. Type I (duplicated fork) peri- hilar branching pattern was the most found (70.2%) among 198 kidneys, followed by type II (triplicated fork) (19.2%) and type III (ladder) (10.6%). Duplicated fork pattern was common in both the right renal artery (75.7%) and left renal artery (64.6%) respectively.  The prevalence of accessory renal artery was 39.4% with hilar artery at 21.2% and polar artery at 18.2%, and the prevalence of early division of renal artery was 20.2%. No statistical significance was associated between gender and laterality in the prevalence of both early division and accessory renal arteries (P > 0.05). Early division of renal artery was more frequent in females (28%) whilst accessory renal arteries were more common in males (40.7%). Conclusions: The present study showed a consistent peri-hilar branching pattern with high individual variability among Indian renal donors. The knowledge about the peri-hilar branching pattern as well as renal artery variations conferred by this study would greatly compliment urological surgeons during renal transplant surgeries.

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Keywords

peri-hilar, renal, artery, accessory, early, donors, CT

About this article
Title

Peri-hilar branching pattern and variations of the renal artery among Indian kidney donors using pre-operative computed tomography angiography: an anatomical study and review

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Ahead of Print

Article type

Original article

Published online

2021-10-07

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2021.0103

Pubmed

34642929

Keywords

peri-hilar
renal
artery
accessory
early
donors
CT

Authors

M. Kumaresan
J. Saikarthik
A. Sangeetha
I. Saraswathi
K. Senthil Kumar
P. Roselin

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