open access

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-12-28
Submitted: 2017-11-16
Accepted: 2017-11-23
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The sonographic morphology of musculus palmaris longus in humans

K. Dąbrowski, H. Stankiewicz-Jóźwicka, A. Kowalczyk, M. Markuszewski, B. Ciszek
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0116
·
Pubmed: 29297183
·
Folia Morphol 2018;77(3):509-513.

open access

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2017-12-28
Submitted: 2017-11-16
Accepted: 2017-11-23

Abstract

Background: The aim of this work was to describe morphology and morphometry of musculus palmaris longus and compare the outcome of Shaeffer’s test with ultrasound imaging.
Materials and methods: Forty forearms of 20 healthy volunteers (11 females, 9 males) were tested by Shaeffer’s test and ultrasound imaging. Anthropological measurements of the forearm and ultrasound guided measurements of musculus palmaris longus were taken. The outcome was tested for statistical significance
by Fisher’s test.
Results: The examination revealed agenesis of palmaris longus in 6 cases, as well as 6 muscles showing quality variations. The Shaeffer’s test gave 4 false-negative results. 28 muscles were described as spindle-shaped and 8 as pennated or bipennated. However, all the spindle-shaped muscles demonstrated a tendon going inside of the muscle’s belly ranging from 2 cm to 11.5 cm. The relation between the circumference of the forearm right below the elbow (mean: 15.38 cm, SD: 1.83 cm) and the approximated volume of the palmaris longus muscle’s belly
(mean: 4.72 cm3, SD: 1.57 cm3) proved to be statistically significant (Fisher’s test p-value < 0.05).
Conclusions: Uncommon morphological variations have been shown. Spindle-shaped muscles have proved to have their tendons continued inside them. Palmaris longus muscle’s belly has proved to take significant amount of volume within the proximal forearm. Shaeffer’s test has shown to have 10% false-negative ratio.

Abstract

Background: The aim of this work was to describe morphology and morphometry of musculus palmaris longus and compare the outcome of Shaeffer’s test with ultrasound imaging.
Materials and methods: Forty forearms of 20 healthy volunteers (11 females, 9 males) were tested by Shaeffer’s test and ultrasound imaging. Anthropological measurements of the forearm and ultrasound guided measurements of musculus palmaris longus were taken. The outcome was tested for statistical significance
by Fisher’s test.
Results: The examination revealed agenesis of palmaris longus in 6 cases, as well as 6 muscles showing quality variations. The Shaeffer’s test gave 4 false-negative results. 28 muscles were described as spindle-shaped and 8 as pennated or bipennated. However, all the spindle-shaped muscles demonstrated a tendon going inside of the muscle’s belly ranging from 2 cm to 11.5 cm. The relation between the circumference of the forearm right below the elbow (mean: 15.38 cm, SD: 1.83 cm) and the approximated volume of the palmaris longus muscle’s belly
(mean: 4.72 cm3, SD: 1.57 cm3) proved to be statistically significant (Fisher’s test p-value < 0.05).
Conclusions: Uncommon morphological variations have been shown. Spindle-shaped muscles have proved to have their tendons continued inside them. Palmaris longus muscle’s belly has proved to take significant amount of volume within the proximal forearm. Shaeffer’s test has shown to have 10% false-negative ratio.

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Keywords

variability; palmaris longus muscle; hand; wrist; forearm; Shaeffer’s test

About this article
Title

The sonographic morphology of musculus palmaris longus in humans

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 77, No 3 (2018)

Pages

509-513

Published online

2017-12-28

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2017.0116

Pubmed

29297183

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2018;77(3):509-513.

Keywords

variability
palmaris longus muscle
hand
wrist
forearm
Shaeffer’s test

Authors

K. Dąbrowski
H. Stankiewicz-Jóźwicka
A. Kowalczyk
M. Markuszewski
B. Ciszek

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