open access

Vol 75, No 3 (2016)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2016-02-24
Submitted: 2015-10-31
Accepted: 2016-01-04
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The paranasal sinuses: three-dimensional reconstruction, photo-realistic imaging, and virtual endoscopy

S. Kapakin
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2016.0006
·
Pubmed: 26916200
·
Folia Morphol 2016;75(3):326-333.

open access

Vol 75, No 3 (2016)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2016-02-24
Submitted: 2015-10-31
Accepted: 2016-01-04

Abstract

Background: The purpose of the study was to create computer-aided design models of the paranasal sinuses (frontal, maxillary, and sphenoid) and to perform virtual endoscopy (VE) to them by using virtual reality modelling language technique.

Materials and methods: The visible human dataset was used as the input imaging data. The Surfdriver software package was applied on these images to reconstruct the paranasal sinuses as 3-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design models. These models were post-processed in Cinema 4D to perform the photorealistic imaging and VE of the paranasal sinuses.

Results: The volumes of the maxillary sinuses were 24747.89 mm3 on the right and 29008.78 mm3 on the left. As for sphenoidal sinuses, an enormous variation was seen between the right and left cavities. The sphenoidal sinuses were 1995.90 mm3 on the right and 10228.93 mm3 on the left while the frontal sinuses were 20805.67 mm3 on the right and 18048.85 mm3 on the left. The largest sinus was left maxillary sinus by volume. Right frontal sinus was the largest sinus by surface area. It was calculated as 6002.73 mm2. Our methodological outcomes proved that Surfdriver and Cinema 4D pair could be reliably used for 3D reconstructions, photo realistic imaging and creating 3D virtual environments from the serial sections of the anatomical structures.

Conclusions: This technique allows students, researchers, and surgeons to perform noninvasive visualisation, simulation, and precise quantitative measurements of internal structures of the body. It was developed as a complementary tool for endoscopic surgery. It could be especially preferable for the patients who could not tolerate flexible or rigid endoscopy.

Abstract

Background: The purpose of the study was to create computer-aided design models of the paranasal sinuses (frontal, maxillary, and sphenoid) and to perform virtual endoscopy (VE) to them by using virtual reality modelling language technique.

Materials and methods: The visible human dataset was used as the input imaging data. The Surfdriver software package was applied on these images to reconstruct the paranasal sinuses as 3-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design models. These models were post-processed in Cinema 4D to perform the photorealistic imaging and VE of the paranasal sinuses.

Results: The volumes of the maxillary sinuses were 24747.89 mm3 on the right and 29008.78 mm3 on the left. As for sphenoidal sinuses, an enormous variation was seen between the right and left cavities. The sphenoidal sinuses were 1995.90 mm3 on the right and 10228.93 mm3 on the left while the frontal sinuses were 20805.67 mm3 on the right and 18048.85 mm3 on the left. The largest sinus was left maxillary sinus by volume. Right frontal sinus was the largest sinus by surface area. It was calculated as 6002.73 mm2. Our methodological outcomes proved that Surfdriver and Cinema 4D pair could be reliably used for 3D reconstructions, photo realistic imaging and creating 3D virtual environments from the serial sections of the anatomical structures.

Conclusions: This technique allows students, researchers, and surgeons to perform noninvasive visualisation, simulation, and precise quantitative measurements of internal structures of the body. It was developed as a complementary tool for endoscopic surgery. It could be especially preferable for the patients who could not tolerate flexible or rigid endoscopy.

Get Citation

Keywords

paranasal sinuses, 3-dimensional reconstruction, photorealistic imaging, virtual reality modelling language, virtual endoscopy

About this article
Title

The paranasal sinuses: three-dimensional reconstruction, photo-realistic imaging, and virtual endoscopy

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 75, No 3 (2016)

Pages

326-333

Published online

2016-02-24

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2016.0006

Pubmed

26916200

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2016;75(3):326-333.

Keywords

paranasal sinuses
3-dimensional reconstruction
photorealistic imaging
virtual reality modelling language
virtual endoscopy

Authors

S. Kapakin

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