open access

Vol 75, No 3 (2016)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2015-12-04
Submitted: 2015-09-28
Accepted: 2015-11-10
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Selected clinical challenges of a supraclavicular cephalic vein in cardiac implantable electronic device implantation

E. B. Świętoń, R. Steckiewicz, M. Grabowski, P. Stolarz
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2015.0125
·
Pubmed: 26711650
·
Folia Morphol 2016;75(3):376-381.

open access

Vol 75, No 3 (2016)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2015-12-04
Submitted: 2015-09-28
Accepted: 2015-11-10

Abstract

Background: Supraclavicular variations of the cephalic vein (CV) are detected sporadically. A somewhat more common finding is a CV variation with the typical course of the main vessel but with an additional supraclavicular branch, called the jugulocephalic vein (JCV). The aim of the study was to detect supraclavicular CVs or JCVs via intra-operative venography as well as assess their effects on primary and later revision cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures in our patients.

Materials and methods: We analysed venographic images obtained during CIED procedures at our centre between 2011 and 2015. Out of the 324 venographies conducted during first-time CIED implantation, we identified 14 showing either a supraclavicular course of the CV itself or a persistent JCV. Among revision procedure venographies, we identified 1 case of pertinent CV variations. These vessels had been morphometrically altered by previous medical interventions.

Results: Based on topography and morphometric parameters, we identified three anatomical variations of supraclavicular vessels: 2 cases of a supraclavicular CV and 12 cases of an infraclavicular CV accompanied by a persistent supraclavicular JCV (with the diameter larger than that of the main CV in 5 cases and smaller in 7 cases). In 2 cases the enlarged diameter of the JCV was probably due to increased collateral venous flow resulting from thrombotic lesions in the subclavian vein.

Conclusions: Supraclavicular CV variations are rare. Nonetheless, they may significantly affect both first-time and later revision CIED procedures. The presence of a supraclavicular vein is an indication for diagnostic venography in the area of the clavipectoral triangle before the CIED procedure.

Abstract

Background: Supraclavicular variations of the cephalic vein (CV) are detected sporadically. A somewhat more common finding is a CV variation with the typical course of the main vessel but with an additional supraclavicular branch, called the jugulocephalic vein (JCV). The aim of the study was to detect supraclavicular CVs or JCVs via intra-operative venography as well as assess their effects on primary and later revision cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures in our patients.

Materials and methods: We analysed venographic images obtained during CIED procedures at our centre between 2011 and 2015. Out of the 324 venographies conducted during first-time CIED implantation, we identified 14 showing either a supraclavicular course of the CV itself or a persistent JCV. Among revision procedure venographies, we identified 1 case of pertinent CV variations. These vessels had been morphometrically altered by previous medical interventions.

Results: Based on topography and morphometric parameters, we identified three anatomical variations of supraclavicular vessels: 2 cases of a supraclavicular CV and 12 cases of an infraclavicular CV accompanied by a persistent supraclavicular JCV (with the diameter larger than that of the main CV in 5 cases and smaller in 7 cases). In 2 cases the enlarged diameter of the JCV was probably due to increased collateral venous flow resulting from thrombotic lesions in the subclavian vein.

Conclusions: Supraclavicular CV variations are rare. Nonetheless, they may significantly affect both first-time and later revision CIED procedures. The presence of a supraclavicular vein is an indication for diagnostic venography in the area of the clavipectoral triangle before the CIED procedure.

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Keywords

venography, cephalic vein, jugulocephalic veins, cardiac implantable electronic device

About this article
Title

Selected clinical challenges of a supraclavicular cephalic vein in cardiac implantable electronic device implantation

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 75, No 3 (2016)

Pages

376-381

Published online

2015-12-04

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2015.0125

Pubmed

26711650

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2016;75(3):376-381.

Keywords

venography
cephalic vein
jugulocephalic veins
cardiac implantable electronic device

Authors

E. B. Świętoń
R. Steckiewicz
M. Grabowski
P. Stolarz

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