open access

Vol 75, No 3 (2016)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2015-12-22
Submitted: 2015-08-05
Accepted: 2015-09-15
Get Citation

Morphological study of the hoof in yak

X. Yang, X. Ren, S. Yu, Y. Cui
DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2015.0132
·
Pubmed: 26711656
·
Folia Morphol 2016;75(3):400-408.

open access

Vol 75, No 3 (2016)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2015-12-22
Submitted: 2015-08-05
Accepted: 2015-09-15

Abstract

The fore- and hindlimb of yak have been studied by the gross anatomical methods and standard histological techniques. The artery of ungula was also determined by X-ray and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene casting. Anatomical features of the forelimb of yak resemble those of hindlimb, including hoof periphery, hoof coronal, hoof wall, hoof sole, and hoof sphere. The forelimb and hindlimb are almost the same in histological structure. The epidermis comprised all 5 strata: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum and stratum basale. The papillary layers and dermal lamellae contained a variable amount of capillary as well as collagen and elastic fibres. Many venules and arteriovenous anastomosis were distributed among the reticular layer. Subcutaneous tissue was composed of rich adipose and connective tissue in hoof periphery, hoof coronal, and, especially, hoof sphere. Major arteria in forelimb of yak include arteria digitalis palmaris communis III and arteriae digitales palmares propriae III and IV axialis. Those in hindlimb include arteria digitalis plantaris communis III and arteria digitalis plantaris propria III and IV axialis. Our findings highlight the main morphological features of yak and provide a morphological basis useful to researchers using yak hoof.

Abstract

The fore- and hindlimb of yak have been studied by the gross anatomical methods and standard histological techniques. The artery of ungula was also determined by X-ray and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene casting. Anatomical features of the forelimb of yak resemble those of hindlimb, including hoof periphery, hoof coronal, hoof wall, hoof sole, and hoof sphere. The forelimb and hindlimb are almost the same in histological structure. The epidermis comprised all 5 strata: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum and stratum basale. The papillary layers and dermal lamellae contained a variable amount of capillary as well as collagen and elastic fibres. Many venules and arteriovenous anastomosis were distributed among the reticular layer. Subcutaneous tissue was composed of rich adipose and connective tissue in hoof periphery, hoof coronal, and, especially, hoof sphere. Major arteria in forelimb of yak include arteria digitalis palmaris communis III and arteriae digitales palmares propriae III and IV axialis. Those in hindlimb include arteria digitalis plantaris communis III and arteria digitalis plantaris propria III and IV axialis. Our findings highlight the main morphological features of yak and provide a morphological basis useful to researchers using yak hoof.

Get Citation

Keywords

forelimb, hindlimb, artery, anatomy, histology, yak

About this article
Title

Morphological study of the hoof in yak

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 75, No 3 (2016)

Pages

400-408

Published online

2015-12-22

DOI

10.5603/FM.a2015.0132

Pubmed

26711656

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2016;75(3):400-408.

Keywords

forelimb
hindlimb
artery
anatomy
histology
yak

Authors

X. Yang
X. Ren
S. Yu
Y. Cui

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