open access

Vol 74, No 1 (2015)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Published online: 2015-03-02
Submitted: 2014-04-16
Accepted: 2014-06-14
Get Citation

Autonomic cardiac nerves: literature review

T. Kuder, E. Nowak
DOI: 10.5603/FM.2015.0003
·
Pubmed: 25792389
·
Folia Morphol 2015;74(1):1-8.

open access

Vol 74, No 1 (2015)
REVIEW ARTICLES
Published online: 2015-03-02
Submitted: 2014-04-16
Accepted: 2014-06-14

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to summarise the knowledge about the autonomic cardiac innervation. It is generally known, that the cardiac nervous system consists of nerve plexoganglionic structures located mostly around the strategic regions of the heart. They consist of two main types of components: parasympathetic neurons, which exert an inhibitory effect, and sympathetic postganglionic nerve fibres, which stimulate the cardiac conduction system, and myocardial cells. However, many authors describe that cardiac ganglia contain various populations of neurons. The largest group are classical cholinergic neurons. The second group of cardiac neurons are cells of dual, cholinergic-adrenergic character. There is also subpopulation of small intensely fluoroscent cells of typically adrenergic phenotype. Moreover, many authors indicated the presence of various neurotransmitters in various combinations. In this way, the neurons in cardiac ganglia are a neurochemical complex beyond the classical vision of parasympathetic ganglia.

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to summarise the knowledge about the autonomic cardiac innervation. It is generally known, that the cardiac nervous system consists of nerve plexoganglionic structures located mostly around the strategic regions of the heart. They consist of two main types of components: parasympathetic neurons, which exert an inhibitory effect, and sympathetic postganglionic nerve fibres, which stimulate the cardiac conduction system, and myocardial cells. However, many authors describe that cardiac ganglia contain various populations of neurons. The largest group are classical cholinergic neurons. The second group of cardiac neurons are cells of dual, cholinergic-adrenergic character. There is also subpopulation of small intensely fluoroscent cells of typically adrenergic phenotype. Moreover, many authors indicated the presence of various neurotransmitters in various combinations. In this way, the neurons in cardiac ganglia are a neurochemical complex beyond the classical vision of parasympathetic ganglia.

Get Citation

Keywords

heart innervations, cardiac neurons, neurochemical characteristic

About this article
Title

Autonomic cardiac nerves: literature review

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 74, No 1 (2015)

Pages

1-8

Published online

2015-03-02

DOI

10.5603/FM.2015.0003

Pubmed

25792389

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2015;74(1):1-8.

Keywords

heart innervations
cardiac neurons
neurochemical characteristic

Authors

T. Kuder
E. Nowak

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