open access

Vol 71, No 4 (2012)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2012-11-30
Submitted: 2012-08-20
Accepted: 2012-10-10
Get Citation

Evolutionary transformation of the cervicobrachial plexus in the colugo (Cynocephalidae: Dermoptera) with a comparison to treeshrews (Tupaiidae: Scandentia) and strepsirrhines (Strepsirrhini: Primates)

T. Kawashima, K. Murakami, M. Takayanagi, F. Sato
Folia Morphol 2012;71(4):228-239.

open access

Vol 71, No 4 (2012)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2012-11-30
Submitted: 2012-08-20
Accepted: 2012-10-10

Abstract

Four cervicobrachial plexuses from two colugos (Dermoptera), which are gliding mammals with semi-elongated necks, were dissected with the imaging analysis and compared with those in its relatives, 12 sides of six treeshrews (Scandentia) and 32 sides of 16 strepsirrihines (Primates), for considering its evolutionary constraint and functional adaptation.

(1) The relative cervical length in the colugos is significantly longer than those in the others, regardless of the number and proportion of vertebrae. (2) In all examined colugos, the cervical plexus exhibited broader cervical root segments comprising the hypoglossal (N. XII) and first to fifth cervical (C1–C5) nerves, whereas the brachial plexus exhibited concentrated segments comprising C6 to the first thoracic nerve (T1) and part of T2. (3) On the other hand, the cervical plexus composing of N. XII and C1-C4 and the brachial plexus composing of C5-T1(2) were formed in all treeshrews (12/12 sides, 100.0%) and most strepsirrines (27/ 32 sides, 84.4%) as seen in most terrestrial placental mammals. (4) The similar root segments of broader cervical and concentrated brachial plexuses were found in 5 sides of three sterepsirrhines (15.6%), which are somewhat longer neck species than the other strepsirrhines and treeshrews.

Based on present and previous reports on enlongated and shorten neck mammals, the modified root segments of the cervicobrachial plexus in the colugo appears to be related more to neck length than to its ecological habit, specialized locomotion, or any phylogenetic contstraint.

Abstract

Four cervicobrachial plexuses from two colugos (Dermoptera), which are gliding mammals with semi-elongated necks, were dissected with the imaging analysis and compared with those in its relatives, 12 sides of six treeshrews (Scandentia) and 32 sides of 16 strepsirrihines (Primates), for considering its evolutionary constraint and functional adaptation.

(1) The relative cervical length in the colugos is significantly longer than those in the others, regardless of the number and proportion of vertebrae. (2) In all examined colugos, the cervical plexus exhibited broader cervical root segments comprising the hypoglossal (N. XII) and first to fifth cervical (C1–C5) nerves, whereas the brachial plexus exhibited concentrated segments comprising C6 to the first thoracic nerve (T1) and part of T2. (3) On the other hand, the cervical plexus composing of N. XII and C1-C4 and the brachial plexus composing of C5-T1(2) were formed in all treeshrews (12/12 sides, 100.0%) and most strepsirrines (27/ 32 sides, 84.4%) as seen in most terrestrial placental mammals. (4) The similar root segments of broader cervical and concentrated brachial plexuses were found in 5 sides of three sterepsirrhines (15.6%), which are somewhat longer neck species than the other strepsirrhines and treeshrews.

Based on present and previous reports on enlongated and shorten neck mammals, the modified root segments of the cervicobrachial plexus in the colugo appears to be related more to neck length than to its ecological habit, specialized locomotion, or any phylogenetic contstraint.
Get Citation

Keywords

Colugo; cervical plexus; brachial plexus; functional anatomy; treeshrew; strepsirrhine

About this article
Title

Evolutionary transformation of the cervicobrachial plexus in the colugo (Cynocephalidae: Dermoptera) with a comparison to treeshrews (Tupaiidae: Scandentia) and strepsirrhines (Strepsirrhini: Primates)

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 71, No 4 (2012)

Pages

228-239

Published online

2012-11-30

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2012;71(4):228-239.

Keywords

Colugo
cervical plexus
brachial plexus
functional anatomy
treeshrew
strepsirrhine

Authors

T. Kawashima
K. Murakami
M. Takayanagi
F. Sato

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl