open access

Vol 62, No 2 (2003)
CASE REPORTS
Published online: 2003-02-27
Submitted: 2012-02-06
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Variations in the insertion of the extensor hallucis longus muscle

Samar Al-saggaf
Folia Morphol 2003;62(2):147-155.

open access

Vol 62, No 2 (2003)
CASE REPORTS
Published online: 2003-02-27
Submitted: 2012-02-06

Abstract

Reports that describe abnormalities of the muscles and tendons of the leg and foot are important with regard to understanding the function of the lower limb and correlating these abnormalities with the clinical aspects. Variations in the insertion of the extensor hallucis longus muscle were studied in 60 adult human cadavers. Three different patterns of insertion were noticed. Pattern I (65%): the extensor hallucis longus muscle had a single tendinous insertion on the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanx of the big toe. Pattern II (26.67%): the muscle terminated in two tendons. Pattern III (8.33%): the muscle terminated in three tendinous slips. Various sites of insertion of the extensor hallucis longus muscle were recorded other than the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanx of the big toe. These were the dorsal aspect of the base of the proximal phalanx of the big toe and the capsule of the first metatarso-phalangeal joint or a connection with the tendon of the extensor hallucis brevis. The frequency of occurrence of lateral deviation of the big toe at the metatarsphalangeal joint (hallux valgus) was recorded. It is suggested that the presence of these variations in the insertion of the extensor hallucis longus muscle may have a role in explaining its association with hallux valgus.

Abstract

Reports that describe abnormalities of the muscles and tendons of the leg and foot are important with regard to understanding the function of the lower limb and correlating these abnormalities with the clinical aspects. Variations in the insertion of the extensor hallucis longus muscle were studied in 60 adult human cadavers. Three different patterns of insertion were noticed. Pattern I (65%): the extensor hallucis longus muscle had a single tendinous insertion on the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanx of the big toe. Pattern II (26.67%): the muscle terminated in two tendons. Pattern III (8.33%): the muscle terminated in three tendinous slips. Various sites of insertion of the extensor hallucis longus muscle were recorded other than the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanx of the big toe. These were the dorsal aspect of the base of the proximal phalanx of the big toe and the capsule of the first metatarso-phalangeal joint or a connection with the tendon of the extensor hallucis brevis. The frequency of occurrence of lateral deviation of the big toe at the metatarsphalangeal joint (hallux valgus) was recorded. It is suggested that the presence of these variations in the insertion of the extensor hallucis longus muscle may have a role in explaining its association with hallux valgus.
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Keywords

anomalous muscle; extensor hallucis longus; variation; hallux valgus

About this article
Title

Variations in the insertion of the extensor hallucis longus muscle

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 62, No 2 (2003)

Pages

147-155

Published online

2003-02-27

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2003;62(2):147-155.

Keywords

anomalous muscle
extensor hallucis longus
variation
hallux valgus

Authors

Samar Al-saggaf

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