open access

Vol 62, No 2 (2003)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2003-02-27
Submitted: 2012-02-06
Get Citation

Diameters of the cavo-sinus-tricuspid area in relation to type I atrial flutter

Dariusz Kozłowski, Jolanta Hreczecha, Magdalena Skwarek, Grzegorz Piwko, Adam Kosiński, Marcin Gawrysiak, Marek Grzybiak
Folia Morphol 2003;62(2):133-142.

open access

Vol 62, No 2 (2003)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2003-02-27
Submitted: 2012-02-06

Abstract

Cardiac arrhythmias have troubled patients and fascinated physicians for centuries. The twentieth century was an era of progress, when the mechanism of cardiac disorders became more commonly recognised. Arrhythmias may be due to abnormalities of automaticity, to abnormalities of conduction, or to a combination of both. In order for re-entry to occur, an area of slowing conduction combined with unidirectional block must be present. Much investigation has centred on the underlying re-entry mechanisms of atrial flutter. In the light of these facts, it would seem that a close acquaintance with the detailed topography of the vena cava orifice (cavo), coronary sinus orifice (sinus) and the attachment of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve (tricupid) area could be of great interest, especially for invasive cardiologists.
The research was conducted carried out on material consisting of 41 hearts of humans of both sexes from the age of 12 to 80 (6 female, 35 male). Classical macroscopic methods of anatomical evaluation were used. The following measurements were made: the shortest distance between the Eustachian valve and the attachment of the tricuspid valve on the left margin of the coronary sinus orifice (diameter 1), the distance between the attachment of the tricuspid valve and the inferior margin of the sinus orifice (diameter 2), the distance between the Eustachian valve and the attachment of the tricuspid valve on the right margin of the coronary sinus orifice (diameter 3), the distance between the inferior margin of the vena cava inferior and the attachment of the tricuspid valve (diameter 4) and, finally, the diameter between the attachment of the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve and the external border of the vena cava inferior (diameter 5).
No correlation was found between the age and sex of the three groups of the material. The dimensions of the structure examined were similar in the three groups of hearts. In young adult hearts all the diameters measured ranged from 4 to 47 mm The average diameters were, respectively: 15.02 mm (diameter 1), 8.97 mm (diameter 2), 17.27 mm (diameter 3), 26.87 mm (diameter 4), 36.42 mm (diameter 5). In the mature adult hearts all the diameters measured ranged from 8 to 45 mm: 18.19 mm (diameter 1), 10.54 mm (diameter 2), 19.95 mm (diameter 3), 28.90 mm (diameter 4), 39.63 mm (diameter 5). In the older adults hearts all the diameters measured ranged from 4 to 47 mm. The average diameters were, respectively: 15.65 mm (diameter 1), 8.70 mm (diameter 2), 7.25 mm (diameter 3), 26.80 mm (diameter 4), 35.85 mm (diameter 5).
On the basis of our study we were able to conclude that the diameters of the cavo-sinus-tricuspid area were constant and did not differ significantly within the three (young, mature, old) adult groups examined.

Abstract

Cardiac arrhythmias have troubled patients and fascinated physicians for centuries. The twentieth century was an era of progress, when the mechanism of cardiac disorders became more commonly recognised. Arrhythmias may be due to abnormalities of automaticity, to abnormalities of conduction, or to a combination of both. In order for re-entry to occur, an area of slowing conduction combined with unidirectional block must be present. Much investigation has centred on the underlying re-entry mechanisms of atrial flutter. In the light of these facts, it would seem that a close acquaintance with the detailed topography of the vena cava orifice (cavo), coronary sinus orifice (sinus) and the attachment of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve (tricupid) area could be of great interest, especially for invasive cardiologists.
The research was conducted carried out on material consisting of 41 hearts of humans of both sexes from the age of 12 to 80 (6 female, 35 male). Classical macroscopic methods of anatomical evaluation were used. The following measurements were made: the shortest distance between the Eustachian valve and the attachment of the tricuspid valve on the left margin of the coronary sinus orifice (diameter 1), the distance between the attachment of the tricuspid valve and the inferior margin of the sinus orifice (diameter 2), the distance between the Eustachian valve and the attachment of the tricuspid valve on the right margin of the coronary sinus orifice (diameter 3), the distance between the inferior margin of the vena cava inferior and the attachment of the tricuspid valve (diameter 4) and, finally, the diameter between the attachment of the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve and the external border of the vena cava inferior (diameter 5).
No correlation was found between the age and sex of the three groups of the material. The dimensions of the structure examined were similar in the three groups of hearts. In young adult hearts all the diameters measured ranged from 4 to 47 mm The average diameters were, respectively: 15.02 mm (diameter 1), 8.97 mm (diameter 2), 17.27 mm (diameter 3), 26.87 mm (diameter 4), 36.42 mm (diameter 5). In the mature adult hearts all the diameters measured ranged from 8 to 45 mm: 18.19 mm (diameter 1), 10.54 mm (diameter 2), 19.95 mm (diameter 3), 28.90 mm (diameter 4), 39.63 mm (diameter 5). In the older adults hearts all the diameters measured ranged from 4 to 47 mm. The average diameters were, respectively: 15.65 mm (diameter 1), 8.70 mm (diameter 2), 7.25 mm (diameter 3), 26.80 mm (diameter 4), 35.85 mm (diameter 5).
On the basis of our study we were able to conclude that the diameters of the cavo-sinus-tricuspid area were constant and did not differ significantly within the three (young, mature, old) adult groups examined.
Get Citation

Keywords

cave-sinus-tricuspid area; type I atrial flutter; diameters; isthmus; ablation

About this article
Title

Diameters of the cavo-sinus-tricuspid area in relation to type I atrial flutter

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 62, No 2 (2003)

Pages

133-142

Published online

2003-02-27

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2003;62(2):133-142.

Keywords

cave-sinus-tricuspid area
type I atrial flutter
diameters
isthmus
ablation

Authors

Dariusz Kozłowski
Jolanta Hreczecha
Magdalena Skwarek
Grzegorz Piwko
Adam Kosiński
Marcin Gawrysiak
Marek Grzybiak

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By  "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail:  viamedica@viamedica.pl