open access

Vol 63, No 2 (2004)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2004-03-12
Submitted: 2012-02-06
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The topographical anatomy and arterial supply of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)

Radek T, Piasecki T
Folia Morphol 2004;63(2):163-171.

open access

Vol 63, No 2 (2004)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2004-03-12
Submitted: 2012-02-06

Abstract

This investigation was conducted on 30 adult, male and female budgerigars. The thyroid and parathyroid glands adhere to each other on both sides of the body and are surrounded by a common connective tissue capsule. The glandular “cluster” on the right side was cranial and dorsal in relation to that on the left.
The thyroid glands were most often supplied with blood by the following glandular arteries: the caudal thyroid (1–4), the cranial thyroid (1–3) and the middle thyroid (1 or 2). The caudal thyroid generally branched from the oesophagotracheobronchial artery. On the right side the cranial and middle thyroid arteries most commonly originated from the ascending oesophageal artery, whereas on the left side they separated from the common trunk of the comes nervi vagi and the ascending oesophageal artery. On each side of the body a single gland was supplied with blood by between 1 and 6 arteries (in most cases by 2–3). On average, the number of thyroid arteries on the right side was statistically significantly higher than the number on the left. The parathyroid artery (1–2) most commonly originated from the caudal thyroid artery, generally separating from this artery under the fibrosus capsule of the glandular “cluster”.

Abstract

This investigation was conducted on 30 adult, male and female budgerigars. The thyroid and parathyroid glands adhere to each other on both sides of the body and are surrounded by a common connective tissue capsule. The glandular “cluster” on the right side was cranial and dorsal in relation to that on the left.
The thyroid glands were most often supplied with blood by the following glandular arteries: the caudal thyroid (1–4), the cranial thyroid (1–3) and the middle thyroid (1 or 2). The caudal thyroid generally branched from the oesophagotracheobronchial artery. On the right side the cranial and middle thyroid arteries most commonly originated from the ascending oesophageal artery, whereas on the left side they separated from the common trunk of the comes nervi vagi and the ascending oesophageal artery. On each side of the body a single gland was supplied with blood by between 1 and 6 arteries (in most cases by 2–3). On average, the number of thyroid arteries on the right side was statistically significantly higher than the number on the left. The parathyroid artery (1–2) most commonly originated from the caudal thyroid artery, generally separating from this artery under the fibrosus capsule of the glandular “cluster”.
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Keywords

budgerigar; thyroid gland; parathyroid glands; topography; thyroid artery; parathyroid artery

About this article
Title

The topographical anatomy and arterial supply of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 63, No 2 (2004)

Pages

163-171

Published online

2004-03-12

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2004;63(2):163-171.

Keywords

budgerigar
thyroid gland
parathyroid glands
topography
thyroid artery
parathyroid artery

Authors

Radek T
Piasecki T

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