open access

Vol 66, No 2 (2007)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2007-03-09
Submitted: 2012-02-06
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Distribution of terminal nerve entry points to the flexor and extensor groups of forearm muscles: an anatomical study

M.D. El-Din Safwat, E.M. Abdel-Meguid
Folia Morphol 2007;66(2):83-93.

open access

Vol 66, No 2 (2007)
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Published online: 2007-03-09
Submitted: 2012-02-06

Abstract

The motor points of the skeletal muscles, mainly of interest to anatomists and physiologists, have recently attracted much attention from researchers in the field of functional electrical stimulation. The muscle motor point has been defined as the entry point of the motor nerve branch into the epimysium of the muscle belly. Anatomists have pointed out that many muscles in the limbs have multiple motor points. Knowledge of the location of nerve branches and terminal nerve entry points facilitates the exact insertion and the suitable selection of the number of electrodes required for each muscle for functional electrical stimulation. The present work therefore aimed to describe the number, location, and distribution of motor points in the human forearm muscles to obtain optimal hand function in many clinical situations.
Twenty three adult human cadaveric forearms were dissected. The numbers of primary nerves and motor points for each muscle were tabulated. The mean numbers and the standard deviation were calculated and grouped in tables. Data analyses were performed with the use of a statistical analysis package (SPSS 13.0). The proximal third of the muscle was the usual part of the muscle that received the motor points. Most of the forearm muscles were innervated from the lateral side and deep surface of the muscle. The information in this study may also be usefully applied in selective denervation procedures to balance muscles in spastic upper limbs.

Abstract

The motor points of the skeletal muscles, mainly of interest to anatomists and physiologists, have recently attracted much attention from researchers in the field of functional electrical stimulation. The muscle motor point has been defined as the entry point of the motor nerve branch into the epimysium of the muscle belly. Anatomists have pointed out that many muscles in the limbs have multiple motor points. Knowledge of the location of nerve branches and terminal nerve entry points facilitates the exact insertion and the suitable selection of the number of electrodes required for each muscle for functional electrical stimulation. The present work therefore aimed to describe the number, location, and distribution of motor points in the human forearm muscles to obtain optimal hand function in many clinical situations.
Twenty three adult human cadaveric forearms were dissected. The numbers of primary nerves and motor points for each muscle were tabulated. The mean numbers and the standard deviation were calculated and grouped in tables. Data analyses were performed with the use of a statistical analysis package (SPSS 13.0). The proximal third of the muscle was the usual part of the muscle that received the motor points. Most of the forearm muscles were innervated from the lateral side and deep surface of the muscle. The information in this study may also be usefully applied in selective denervation procedures to balance muscles in spastic upper limbs.
Get Citation

Keywords

muscle motor points; electrical stimulation

About this article
Title

Distribution of terminal nerve entry points to the flexor and extensor groups of forearm muscles: an anatomical study

Journal

Folia Morphologica

Issue

Vol 66, No 2 (2007)

Pages

83-93

Published online

2007-03-09

Bibliographic record

Folia Morphol 2007;66(2):83-93.

Keywords

muscle motor points
electrical stimulation

Authors

M.D. El-Din Safwat
E.M. Abdel-Meguid

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