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Published online: 2024-05-23

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A bicaudatus sartorius muscle: a rare variant with potential clinical implications

George Tsakotos1, Łukasz Olewnik2, George Triantafyllou1, Georgi P Georgiev3, Nicol Zielinska2, Maria Piagkou1


Background: Sartorius muscle (SM) belongs to the thigh anterior compartment musculature. It corresponds to the longest muscle of the human body, while its variations are described rarely. The current case reports aims to describe a distal bifurcation of the SM, forming the bicaudatus SM variant.

Materials and methods: An 84-year-old male cadaver was dissected for educational and research purposes at the Department of Anatomy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.

Results: On the left lower limb, the SM was typically originated from the anterior superior iliac spine. After 351.22 mm length, it was bifurcated into an anterior and posterior part. Both muscular parts were contributing to the pes anserinus morphology. Femoral nerve branches were providing innervation to the variant muscle, while the saphenous nerve and vein were coursed posteriorly to the variant muscle.

Conclusions: SM morphological variability is described quite rarely. The current case report corresponds to the bicaudatus SM variant. Accessory parts of SM could lead to compression symptoms to the femoral nerve anterior branches, as well as to the saphenous nerve.

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