Online first
Original article
Published online: 2024-07-02

open access

Page views 119
Article views/downloads 74
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Three-dimensional morphometric and volumetric analysis of maxillary sinuses

Padamjeet Panchal1, Rajeev Nayan Priyadarshi2, Abhigyan Satyam1, Binita Chaudhary1


Background: The maxillary sinus is a pyramid-shaped cavity with varying shapes, sizes, and capacities. Its dimensions grow gradually and develop until early adulthood. Anatomical knowledge of the maxillary sinus is essential to understanding sinonasal disorders, planning surgical procedures and preventing complications. Awareness of the sinus's proximity to critical structures helps avoid injuries during surgery. The European, Korean, and Sri Lankan population study parameters show varying results and do not necessarily apply to the Indian population. The standard morphometric data of the maxillary sinus is scanty in the Indian population. The study aimed to determine the volume and morphometry of the maxillary sinus along with gender differences in the Eastern population of the Indian.

Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using cone beam computed tomography data of maxillary sinuses of 100 normal individuals. The data were analysed after the three-dimensional reconstruction of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images with the help of DICOM to print and Geomagic freeform software in the Anatomy department. The different linear morphometric variables and volume of the maxillary sinus were studied. SPSS version 27.0. was utilised for statistical analyses.

Results: The mean values of Antero-posterior diameter, Transverse diameter, Craniocaudal diameters, the height of ostium from the floor and volume of the maxillary sinus in males on the right side are 36.61 mm, 20.7 mm, 40.31 mm, 26.02 mm and 16055.24 mm3 and on the left side are 37.17 mm, 20.17 mm, 40.73 mm, 26.91 mm and 15712.66 mm3 whereas in females the values on the right side are 38.10 mm, 21.56 mm, 38.96 mm, 25.81 mm and 14687.78 mm3 and on left side are 38.23 mm, 21.53 mm, 38.48 mm, 25.28 mm and 14203.13 mm3 respectively. The side-to-side parameter differences were non-significant within the male and female groups, respectively. The females had significantly (p < 0.05) larger transverse diameters than males in both the right and left maxillary sinuses. The males tend to have a slightly larger mean craniocaudal diameter than females, but the difference was found statistically significant (p < 0.05) only in the left maxillary sinus. The gender differentiation based on the measured parameters of bilateral maxillary sinus accuracy rate was 89.4% in males and 61.8% in females.

Conclusions: These parameters serve as a standard or reference point, allowing radiologists and surgeons to compare individual patient scans to population averages and aid in better clinical outcomes. The mean values of different parameters of the maxillary sinus may be utilised to differentiate various suspected sinus pathologies, which is helpful for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Gender differentiation can be done more accurately by forensic experts using Maxillary sinus transverse diameter bilaterally, followed by craniocaudal diameter of the left side sinus for predicting the gender of an unknown maxilla.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Blythe J, Holmes S. Osteology of the facial skeleton and naso-ethmoidal comlex in relation to trauma. In: Brennan PA, Standring S, Wiseman SM. ed. Gray's Surgical Anatomy. Elsevier, Amsterdam 2020: 22–24.
  2. Bhusal D, Samanta PP, Gupta V, et al. Morphometric study of maxillary air sinus using computed tomography. Int J Anat Radiol Surg. 2017; 6(4): AO31–AO34.
  3. El-Anwar M, Raafat A, Almolla R, et al. Maxillary sinus ostium assessment: A CT study. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med. 2018; 49(4): 1009–1013.
  4. Ekizoglu O, Inci E, Hocaoglu E, et al. The use of maxillary sinus dimensions in gender determination: a thin-slice multidetector computed tomography assisted morphometric study. J Craniofac Surg. 2014; 25(3): 957–960.
  5. Gulec M, Tassoker M, Magat G, et al. Three-dimensional volumetric analysis of the maxillary sinus: a cone-beam computed tomography study. Folia Morphol. 2020; 79(3): 557–562.
  6. Hettiarachchi PVKS, Gunathilake PMPC, Jayasinghe RM, et al. Linear and volumetric analysis of maxillary sinus pneumatization in a Sri Lankan population using cone beam computer tomography. Biomed Res Int. 2021; 2021: 6659085.
  7. Hopkins C. Nose nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. In: Standring S. ed. Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical ractice (42th ed). Elsevier, Amsterdam 2021: 686–701.
  8. Gupta C, Kiruba L, Kumar S, et al. A study of morphometric evaluation of the maxillary sinuses in normal subjects using computer tomography images. Arch Med Health Sci. 2014; 2(1): 12.
  9. Kumar K, Babu C. Morphometric study of maxillary sinuses in normal subjects by using computed tomographic images. Int J Anat Res. 2020; 8(2.2): 7505–7509.
  10. Oktay H. The study of the maxillary sinus areas in different orthodontic malocclusions. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1992; 102(2): 143–145.
  11. Paknahad M, Shahidi S, Zarei Z. Sexual dimorphism of maxillary sinus dimensions using cone-beam computed tomography. J Forensic Sci. 2017; 62(2): 395–398.
  12. Park CH, Kim KD, Park C. Measurement of maxillary sinus volume using computed tomography. Imaging Sci Dent. 2000; 30: 63–70.
  13. Saccucci M, Cipriani F, Carderi S, et al. Gender assessment through three-dimensional analysis of maxillary sinuses by means of cone beam computed tomography. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(2): 185–193.
  14. Sharma S, Jehan M, Kumar A. Measurements of maxillary sinus volume and dimensions by computed tomography scan for gender determination. J Anat Soc India. 2014; 63(1): 36–42.
  15. Kotian S, Souza A, Rajagopal KV, et al. Anatomy of maxillary sinus and its ostium: A radiological study using computed tomography. CHRISMED J Health Res. 2016; 3(1): 37.
  16. Tambawala S, Karjodkar F, Sansare K, et al. Sexual dimorphism of maxillary sinus using cone beam computed tomography. Egypt J Forensic Sci. 2016; 6(2): 120–125.
  17. Teke HY, Duran S, Canturk N, et al. Determination of gender by measuring the size of the maxillary sinuses in computerized tomography scans. Surg Radiol Anat. 2007; 29(1): 9–13.
  18. Urooge A, Patil BA. Sexual Dimorphism of Maxillary Sinus: A Morphometric Analysis using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017; 11(3): ZC67–ZC70.
  19. Uthman AT, Al-Rawi NH, Al-Naaimi AS, et al. Evaluation of maxillary sinus dimensions in gender determination using helical CT scanning. J Forensic Sci. 2011; 56(2): 403–408.