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Three-dimensional morphometric and volumetric analysis of maxillary sinuses

Padamjeet Panchal1, Rajeev Nayan Priyadarshi2, Abhigyan Satyam1, Binita Chaudhary1

Abstract

Background: The maxillary sinus is a pyramid-shaped cavity with varying shapes, sizes, and capacities. Its dimensions grow gradually and develop until early adulthood. Anatomical knowledge of the maxillary sinus is essential to understanding sinonasal disorders, planning surgical procedures and preventing complications. Awareness of the sinus's proximity to critical structures helps avoid injuries during surgery. The European, Korean, and Sri Lankan population study parameters show varying results and do not necessarily apply to the Indian population. The standard morphometric data of the maxillary sinus is scanty in the Indian population. The study aimed to determine the volume and morphometry of the maxillary sinus along with gender differences in the Eastern population of the Indian.

Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using cone beam computed tomography data of maxillary sinuses of 100 normal individuals. The data were analysed after the three-dimensional reconstruction of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images with the help of DICOM to print and Geomagic freeform software in the Anatomy department. The different linear morphometric variables and volume of the maxillary sinus were studied. SPSS version 27.0. was utilised for statistical analyses.

Results: The mean values of Antero-posterior diameter, Transverse diameter, Craniocaudal diameters, the height of ostium from the floor and volume of the maxillary sinus in males on the right side are 36.61 mm, 20.7 mm, 40.31 mm, 26.02 mm and 16055.24 mm3 and on the left side are 37.17 mm, 20.17 mm, 40.73 mm, 26.91 mm and 15712.66 mm3 whereas in females the values on the right side are 38.10 mm, 21.56 mm, 38.96 mm, 25.81 mm and 14687.78 mm3 and on left side are 38.23 mm, 21.53 mm, 38.48 mm, 25.28 mm and 14203.13 mm3 respectively. The side-to-side parameter differences were non-significant within the male and female groups, respectively. The females had significantly (p < 0.05) larger transverse diameters than males in both the right and left maxillary sinuses. The males tend to have a slightly larger mean craniocaudal diameter than females, but the difference was found statistically significant (p < 0.05) only in the left maxillary sinus. The gender differentiation based on the measured parameters of bilateral maxillary sinus accuracy rate was 89.4% in males and 61.8% in females.

Conclusions: These parameters serve as a standard or reference point, allowing radiologists and surgeons to compare individual patient scans to population averages and aid in better clinical outcomes. The mean values of different parameters of the maxillary sinus may be utilised to differentiate various suspected sinus pathologies, which is helpful for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Gender differentiation can be done more accurately by forensic experts using Maxillary sinus transverse diameter bilaterally, followed by craniocaudal diameter of the left side sinus for predicting the gender of an unknown maxilla.

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