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Vol 43, No 4 (2005)
Original paper
Submitted: 2011-12-19
Published online: 2005-12-31
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Mobilization of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in acute coronary syndromes.

Wojciech Wojakowski, Michał Tendera
Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2005;43(4):229-232.

open access

Vol 43, No 4 (2005)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Submitted: 2011-12-19
Published online: 2005-12-31

Abstract

Two hypotheses explain the role of adult progenitor cells in myocardial regeneration. Stem cell plasticity which involves mobilization of stem cells from the bone marrow and other niches, homing to the area of tissue injury and transdifferentiation into functional cardiomyocytes. Alternative hypothesis is based on the observations that bone marrow harbors a heterogenous population of cells positive for CXCR4 - receptor for chemokine SDF-1. This population of non-hematopoietic cells expresses genes specific for early muscle, myocardial and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). These tissue-committed stem cells circulate in the peripheral blood at low numbers and can be mobilized by hematopoietic cytokines in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Endothelial precursors capable of transforming into mature, functional endothelial cells are present in the pool of peripheral mononuclear cells in circulation. Their number significantly increases in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with subsequent decrease after 1 month, as well as in patients with unstable angina in comparison to stable coronary heart disease (CHD). There are numerous physiological and pathological stimuli which influence the number of circulating EPC such as regular physical activity, medications (statins, PPAR-gamma agonists, estrogens), as well as numerous inflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines. Mobilization of stem cells in AMI involves not only the endothelial progenitors but also hematopoietic, non-hematopoietic stem cells and most probably the mesenchymal cells. In healthy subjects and patients with stable CHD, small number of circulating CD34+, CXCR4+, CD117+, c-met+ and CD34/CD117+ stem cells can be detected. In patients with AMI, a significant increase in CD34+/CXCR4+, CD117+, c-met+ and CD34/CD117+ stem cell number the in peripheral blood was demonstrated with parallel increase in mRNA expression for early cardiac, muscle and endothelial markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The maximum number of stem cells was found early in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (<12 hours) with subsequent decrease through the 7-day follow-up and with concomitant changes in the levels of cytokines involved in the inflammatory response and stem cell recruitment. Moreover, peak expression of cardiac muscle and endothelial markers occurred at the same time as the most significant increase in CD34/CXCR4+ stem cell number. The SDF-1/CXCR-4 axis seems particularly important in stem/muscle progenitor cell homing, chemotaxis, engraftment and retention in ischaemic myocardium. The significance of autologous stem cells mobilization in terms of cardiac salvage and regeneration needs to be proved in humans but it seems to be a reparative mechanism triggered early in the course of acute coronary syndromes.

Abstract

Two hypotheses explain the role of adult progenitor cells in myocardial regeneration. Stem cell plasticity which involves mobilization of stem cells from the bone marrow and other niches, homing to the area of tissue injury and transdifferentiation into functional cardiomyocytes. Alternative hypothesis is based on the observations that bone marrow harbors a heterogenous population of cells positive for CXCR4 - receptor for chemokine SDF-1. This population of non-hematopoietic cells expresses genes specific for early muscle, myocardial and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). These tissue-committed stem cells circulate in the peripheral blood at low numbers and can be mobilized by hematopoietic cytokines in the setting of myocardial ischemia. Endothelial precursors capable of transforming into mature, functional endothelial cells are present in the pool of peripheral mononuclear cells in circulation. Their number significantly increases in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with subsequent decrease after 1 month, as well as in patients with unstable angina in comparison to stable coronary heart disease (CHD). There are numerous physiological and pathological stimuli which influence the number of circulating EPC such as regular physical activity, medications (statins, PPAR-gamma agonists, estrogens), as well as numerous inflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines. Mobilization of stem cells in AMI involves not only the endothelial progenitors but also hematopoietic, non-hematopoietic stem cells and most probably the mesenchymal cells. In healthy subjects and patients with stable CHD, small number of circulating CD34+, CXCR4+, CD117+, c-met+ and CD34/CD117+ stem cells can be detected. In patients with AMI, a significant increase in CD34+/CXCR4+, CD117+, c-met+ and CD34/CD117+ stem cell number the in peripheral blood was demonstrated with parallel increase in mRNA expression for early cardiac, muscle and endothelial markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The maximum number of stem cells was found early in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (<12 hours) with subsequent decrease through the 7-day follow-up and with concomitant changes in the levels of cytokines involved in the inflammatory response and stem cell recruitment. Moreover, peak expression of cardiac muscle and endothelial markers occurred at the same time as the most significant increase in CD34/CXCR4+ stem cell number. The SDF-1/CXCR-4 axis seems particularly important in stem/muscle progenitor cell homing, chemotaxis, engraftment and retention in ischaemic myocardium. The significance of autologous stem cells mobilization in terms of cardiac salvage and regeneration needs to be proved in humans but it seems to be a reparative mechanism triggered early in the course of acute coronary syndromes.
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About this article
Title

Mobilization of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in acute coronary syndromes.

Journal

Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica

Issue

Vol 43, No 4 (2005)

Article type

Original paper

Pages

229-232

Published online

2005-12-31

Bibliographic record

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2005;43(4):229-232.

Authors

Wojciech Wojakowski
Michał Tendera

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