open access

Vol 47, No 4 (2009)
Original paper
Submitted: 2011-12-19
Published online: 2010-05-01
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Procoagulants and anticoagulants in fetal blood. A literature survey.

Mieczysław Uszyński, Waldemar Uszyński, Marek Szymański
DOI: 10.2478/v10042-009-0094-4
·
Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2009;47(4):545-550.

open access

Vol 47, No 4 (2009)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Submitted: 2011-12-19
Published online: 2010-05-01

Abstract

In intrauterine life, hemostasis is maintained by the same components as in extrauterine life (blood platelets, coagulation and fibrinolysis systems, involvement of the vascular wall); in the fetus, however, these components show significant differences of a quantitative/qualitative nature. In the present study, we surveyed the literature on the coagulation system in the fetus. We focused on the velocity of development of the coagulation system, being reflected in the increased concentration of all procoagulants and anticoagulants (a rise from approximately 20% in the middle of pregnancy to about 60% or more in the period of labor; exceptions: factors V, VIII and XIII which in the labor period reach the adult level) and screening test results (prothrombin time, aPTT - activated prothrombin time, and thrombin time). Reference values were given for the 19-38 weeks of pregnancy and the labor term. Biochemical features of fetal fibrinogen and PIVKA factors were also discussed. The role of activated protein C (APC) in the maintenance of balance between procoagulants and anticoagulants was postulated as well as the role of APC in the formation of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI).

Abstract

In intrauterine life, hemostasis is maintained by the same components as in extrauterine life (blood platelets, coagulation and fibrinolysis systems, involvement of the vascular wall); in the fetus, however, these components show significant differences of a quantitative/qualitative nature. In the present study, we surveyed the literature on the coagulation system in the fetus. We focused on the velocity of development of the coagulation system, being reflected in the increased concentration of all procoagulants and anticoagulants (a rise from approximately 20% in the middle of pregnancy to about 60% or more in the period of labor; exceptions: factors V, VIII and XIII which in the labor period reach the adult level) and screening test results (prothrombin time, aPTT - activated prothrombin time, and thrombin time). Reference values were given for the 19-38 weeks of pregnancy and the labor term. Biochemical features of fetal fibrinogen and PIVKA factors were also discussed. The role of activated protein C (APC) in the maintenance of balance between procoagulants and anticoagulants was postulated as well as the role of APC in the formation of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI).
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About this article
Title

Procoagulants and anticoagulants in fetal blood. A literature survey.

Journal

Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica

Issue

Vol 47, No 4 (2009)

Article type

Original paper

Pages

545-550

Published online

2010-05-01

DOI

10.2478/v10042-009-0094-4

Bibliographic record

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2009;47(4):545-550.

Authors

Mieczysław Uszyński
Waldemar Uszyński
Marek Szymański

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