open access

Vol 48, No 2 (2010)
Original paper
Published online: 2010-08-03
Submitted: 2011-12-19
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Synantocytes: the fifth type of glia? In comparison with astrocytes.

Aleksandra Krawczyk, Jadwiga Jaworska-Adamu
DOI: 10.2478/v10042-010-0033-z
·
Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2010;48(2):173-177.

open access

Vol 48, No 2 (2010)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2010-08-03
Submitted: 2011-12-19

Abstract

To date four types of glial cells have been identified in central nervous system: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymocytes. The latest results indicate the existence of the fifth glial type-synantocytes from the Greek word synanto that is for contact. Synantocyte processes reach neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, synapses, myelin sheaths and nervous fibres' nodes of Ranvier. Morphologically, synantocytes are similar to astrocytes, but they do not contain, like astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 beta protein. Synantocytes show expression of NG2 surface chondroition sulphate proteoglycan. Moreover, these cells in contrast to astrocytes do not have membrane transporters for glutamate (Glu), but have receptors for Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid, whose activation can contribute to keeping up ion balance in CNS. Synantocytes are components of synapses, participate in neuronal cytoskeleton stabilization and control myelin integrity, mediate oligodendrocytes answer to nervous fibres' damage and form glial scars. Thus, there are evidences that synantocytes and astrocytes make separate glial population, playing important functions in neuroprotection.

Abstract

To date four types of glial cells have been identified in central nervous system: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymocytes. The latest results indicate the existence of the fifth glial type-synantocytes from the Greek word synanto that is for contact. Synantocyte processes reach neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, synapses, myelin sheaths and nervous fibres' nodes of Ranvier. Morphologically, synantocytes are similar to astrocytes, but they do not contain, like astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100 beta protein. Synantocytes show expression of NG2 surface chondroition sulphate proteoglycan. Moreover, these cells in contrast to astrocytes do not have membrane transporters for glutamate (Glu), but have receptors for Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid, whose activation can contribute to keeping up ion balance in CNS. Synantocytes are components of synapses, participate in neuronal cytoskeleton stabilization and control myelin integrity, mediate oligodendrocytes answer to nervous fibres' damage and form glial scars. Thus, there are evidences that synantocytes and astrocytes make separate glial population, playing important functions in neuroprotection.
Get Citation
About this article
Title

Synantocytes: the fifth type of glia? In comparison with astrocytes.

Journal

Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica

Issue

Vol 48, No 2 (2010)

Article type

Original paper

Pages

173-177

Published online

2010-08-03

DOI

10.2478/v10042-010-0033-z

Bibliographic record

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2010;48(2):173-177.

Authors

Aleksandra Krawczyk
Jadwiga Jaworska-Adamu

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