open access

Vol 49, No 2 (2011)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2011-07-11
Submitted: 2011-12-19
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Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) induces apoptosis or necrosis, but has no major influence on the cell cycle of Jurkat cells

Dorota Pozarowska, Piotr Pozarowski
DOI: 10.5603/FHC.2011.0031
·
Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2011;49(2):225-230.

open access

Vol 49, No 2 (2011)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2011-07-11
Submitted: 2011-12-19

Abstract

Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a cationic detergent with a very slow turnover. Because of its strong antibacterial activities, BAK is widely used especially in dentistry and ophthalmology. It is the most commonly used preservative in topical ophthalmic medications. Due to chronicity and widespread use of such treatments, BAK’s side effects are of great importance. BAK toxicity for adherent cells, probably related to its pro-oxidative activities, is time- and dose-dependent. Although lymphocytes often infiltrate superficial eye tissues, the BAK influence on them is yet to be established. The aim of this study was to check BAK cytotoxicity on T lymphocytic Jurkat line cells and to verify the suggestion that BAK can induce G2M cell blocks. A dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect of BAK on lymphoid cells in relatively low concentrations was shown in this study. In lower concentrations, it shows a moderate apoptotic and minimal antiproliferative effect on Jurkat cells, while in higher concentrations it shows a rapid necrotic effect. No G2M cell blocks were observed. Our findings could suggest lymphoid dysfunction during intensive, prolonged topical BAK treatment, even at dosages relatively non-toxic to epithelial eye cells. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 225–230)

Abstract

Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a cationic detergent with a very slow turnover. Because of its strong antibacterial activities, BAK is widely used especially in dentistry and ophthalmology. It is the most commonly used preservative in topical ophthalmic medications. Due to chronicity and widespread use of such treatments, BAK’s side effects are of great importance. BAK toxicity for adherent cells, probably related to its pro-oxidative activities, is time- and dose-dependent. Although lymphocytes often infiltrate superficial eye tissues, the BAK influence on them is yet to be established. The aim of this study was to check BAK cytotoxicity on T lymphocytic Jurkat line cells and to verify the suggestion that BAK can induce G2M cell blocks. A dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect of BAK on lymphoid cells in relatively low concentrations was shown in this study. In lower concentrations, it shows a moderate apoptotic and minimal antiproliferative effect on Jurkat cells, while in higher concentrations it shows a rapid necrotic effect. No G2M cell blocks were observed. Our findings could suggest lymphoid dysfunction during intensive, prolonged topical BAK treatment, even at dosages relatively non-toxic to epithelial eye cells. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 225–230)
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Keywords

BAC; toxicity; apoptosis; necrosis; viability; cell cycle; proliferation; cornea; conjunctiva; in vitro

About this article
Title

Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) induces apoptosis or necrosis, but has no major influence on the cell cycle of Jurkat cells

Journal

Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica

Issue

Vol 49, No 2 (2011)

Pages

225-230

Published online

2011-07-11

DOI

10.5603/FHC.2011.0031

Bibliographic record

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2011;49(2):225-230.

Keywords

BAC
toxicity
apoptosis
necrosis
viability
cell cycle
proliferation
cornea
conjunctiva
in vitro

Authors

Dorota Pozarowska
Piotr Pozarowski

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