open access

Vol 11, No 3 (2016)
Cardiology Investigation
Published online: 2016-07-13
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Obstructive sleep apnea — diagnosis and treatment options

Donat Domaradzki, Piotr J. Stryjewski, Małgorzata Konieczyńska, Jacek Lelakowski
DOI: 10.5603/FC.2016.0040
·
Folia Cardiologica 2016;11(3):253-259.

open access

Vol 11, No 3 (2016)
Cardiology Investigation
Published online: 2016-07-13

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease characterized by recurrent episodes of apneas and hypopneas, caused by total or partial airway obstruction. Main symptoms of OSA are: excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, waking up suddenly feeling like gasping or choking, dry mouth or sore throat after waking up, morning headaches, trouble concentrating, night sweats and others. Prevalence of OSA is high and probably — due to increasing prevalence of obesity — will be higher in the future. Many studies show correlation between OSA and other diseases such as hypertension, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias and stroke. There are also many publications showing positive impact of CPAP treatment on managing comorbidities. Gold standard in diagnosis of OSA is in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG), although type 3 portable monitors (with at least 4 channels) are also acceptable to diagnose patients with pre- -test moderate to high risk of OSA. Diagnosis is made based on PSG results and symptoms. Based on PSG results, we can divide OSA into 3 groups: mild, moderate and severe. Based on current guidelines and publications, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a first choice treatment in moderate and severe OSA. Treatment strategies in mild OSA depend on patient health, comorbidities and individual patient decisions. Other treatment options are oral appliances, positional treatment and surgery but none of them equals CPAP’s benefits.

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease characterized by recurrent episodes of apneas and hypopneas, caused by total or partial airway obstruction. Main symptoms of OSA are: excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, waking up suddenly feeling like gasping or choking, dry mouth or sore throat after waking up, morning headaches, trouble concentrating, night sweats and others. Prevalence of OSA is high and probably — due to increasing prevalence of obesity — will be higher in the future. Many studies show correlation between OSA and other diseases such as hypertension, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias and stroke. There are also many publications showing positive impact of CPAP treatment on managing comorbidities. Gold standard in diagnosis of OSA is in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG), although type 3 portable monitors (with at least 4 channels) are also acceptable to diagnose patients with pre- -test moderate to high risk of OSA. Diagnosis is made based on PSG results and symptoms. Based on PSG results, we can divide OSA into 3 groups: mild, moderate and severe. Based on current guidelines and publications, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a first choice treatment in moderate and severe OSA. Treatment strategies in mild OSA depend on patient health, comorbidities and individual patient decisions. Other treatment options are oral appliances, positional treatment and surgery but none of them equals CPAP’s benefits.

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Keywords

apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, OSA, CPAP, snoring, excessive sleepiness, somnolence

About this article
Title

Obstructive sleep apnea — diagnosis and treatment options

Journal

Folia Cardiologica

Issue

Vol 11, No 3 (2016)

Pages

253-259

Published online

2016-07-13

DOI

10.5603/FC.2016.0040

Bibliographic record

Folia Cardiologica 2016;11(3):253-259.

Keywords

apnea
obstructive sleep apnea
OSA
CPAP
snoring
excessive sleepiness
somnolence

Authors

Donat Domaradzki
Piotr J. Stryjewski
Małgorzata Konieczyńska
Jacek Lelakowski

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