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Submitted: 2021-08-20
Accepted: 2021-09-30
Published online: 2021-11-04
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Differences in the sex hormone levels in the menstrual cycle due to tobacco smoking - a myth or reality?

Ewa Florek1, Wojciech Piekoszewski, Agata Czarnywojtek, Anna Sędziak, Wojciech Jawień, Anna Dera-Szymanowska, Marta Szukalska, Krzysztof Szymanowski, Marek Chuchracki, Marek Ruchała
DOI: 10.5603/EP.a2021.0097
Affiliations
  1. Laboratory of Environmental Research, Department of Toxicology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland, Dojazd 30, 60-631 Poznan, Poland

open access

Ahead of print
Original Paper
Submitted: 2021-08-20
Accepted: 2021-09-30
Published online: 2021-11-04

Abstract

Introduction: Tobacco smoke constitutes, among others, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic analogs, aromatic amines, N-nitrosamines, volatile hydrocarbons, aldehydes, phenols, miscellaneous organic compounds, metals, and inorganic compounds Tobacco smoking can harm a women’s reproductive system and may reduce fertility. The objective of the study was to explore the effect caused by tobacco smoke on the menstrual cycle caused by smoking and second-hand smoke exposure. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 153 women of reproductive age who received care at the Gynecological-Obstetric Clinical Hospital of the Poznan University of Medical Sciences. They were divided into three treatment groups: non-smokers, second-hand smokers, and smokers. Comprehensive assessment of all hormone levels: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) in the various phases of the menstrual cycle and with concomitant determinations of serum cotinine concentrations was performed. The menstrual cycle was observed with ultrasonography. Results: Cigarette smoking may be an important factor in disrupting reproduction: 1. The increase in estradiol E2 level was accompanied by significantly lowered serum cotinine concentrations in tobacco smokers, 2. In smoking patients, the serum level of LH significantly increased on the first days of the menstrual cycle, 3. The higher levels of P (in the 14th and 21st days) were assumed to be the result of a longer menstrual cycle. Conclusions: Active and passive smoking may be an important contributor to reproductive health issues and deserves a greater focus in health education programs directed towards women of reproductive age.

Abstract

Introduction: Tobacco smoke constitutes, among others, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic analogs, aromatic amines, N-nitrosamines, volatile hydrocarbons, aldehydes, phenols, miscellaneous organic compounds, metals, and inorganic compounds Tobacco smoking can harm a women’s reproductive system and may reduce fertility. The objective of the study was to explore the effect caused by tobacco smoke on the menstrual cycle caused by smoking and second-hand smoke exposure. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 153 women of reproductive age who received care at the Gynecological-Obstetric Clinical Hospital of the Poznan University of Medical Sciences. They were divided into three treatment groups: non-smokers, second-hand smokers, and smokers. Comprehensive assessment of all hormone levels: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) in the various phases of the menstrual cycle and with concomitant determinations of serum cotinine concentrations was performed. The menstrual cycle was observed with ultrasonography. Results: Cigarette smoking may be an important factor in disrupting reproduction: 1. The increase in estradiol E2 level was accompanied by significantly lowered serum cotinine concentrations in tobacco smokers, 2. In smoking patients, the serum level of LH significantly increased on the first days of the menstrual cycle, 3. The higher levels of P (in the 14th and 21st days) were assumed to be the result of a longer menstrual cycle. Conclusions: Active and passive smoking may be an important contributor to reproductive health issues and deserves a greater focus in health education programs directed towards women of reproductive age.

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Keywords

menstrual cycle; tobacco smoking; sex hormones; fertility

About this article
Title

Differences in the sex hormone levels in the menstrual cycle due to tobacco smoking - a myth or reality?

Journal

Endokrynologia Polska

Issue

Ahead of print

Article type

Original paper

Published online

2021-11-04

DOI

10.5603/EP.a2021.0097

Keywords

menstrual cycle
tobacco smoking
sex hormones
fertility

Authors

Ewa Florek
Wojciech Piekoszewski
Agata Czarnywojtek
Anna Sędziak
Wojciech Jawień
Anna Dera-Szymanowska
Marta Szukalska
Krzysztof Szymanowski
Marek Chuchracki
Marek Ruchała

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