Vol 72, No 5 (2021)
Original paper
Published online: 2021-05-05

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Etiological classification and clinical spectrum of Egyptian pediatric patients with disorder of sex development, single center experience

Radwa A. Shamma1, Shimaa Atef1, Noha Arafa1
Pubmed: 34010442
Endokrynol Pol 2021;72(5):558-565.


Introduction: The aim of the current work was to review the clinical profile, aetiological classification, as well as the management of Egyptian paediatric patients with disorders of sex development (DSD) presenting at a tertiary centre in Cairo.

Material and methods: The study was a cross-sectional observational study that included Egyptian patients who attended the Endocrinology clinic during a period of one year from January to December 2019. All patients with overt genital ambiguity aged from 0 to 18 years were recruited in the study. Diagnosis of DSD was based on clinical features and hormonal profile.

Results: Out of 100 patients, 71% had 46XY DSD, 24% had 46XX DSD, while sex chromosome DSD was identified in 5%. The median age of presentation was 12 months with 19% presented during infancy. The most common cause of 46XY DSD was due to either defect in androgen synthesis or action (40%) with the majority due to androgen insensitivity syndrome (28%). Most of the 46XX DSD (21/24) patients were diagnosed as classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia secondary to deficiency of 21 hydroxylase enzyme, with 90% being salt wasters.

Conclusion: Our series revealed that 46XY DSD was the most frequent DSD aetiological diagnosis, with androgen insensitivity syndrome representing the commonest cause. CAH with classic salt wasting type was the second most common disorder. Management of children with DSD is challenging especially with lack of adequate resources. The crucial issues that stand against proper diagnosis and management are late presentation combined with economic constrains, and social and cultural issues.

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