Vol 70, No 6 (2019)
Review paper
Published online: 2019-12-20

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The role of sodium phosphate cotransporters in ectopic calcification

Sergio Gonzalo1, Ricardo Villa-Bellosta1
Pubmed: 31891412
Endokrynol Pol 2019;70(6):496-503.


Phosphate plays a critical role in many vital cellular processes. Deviations from normal serum phosphate levels, including alterations in the extracellular phosphate/pyrophosphate ratio, can cause severe consequences, such as ectopic calcification. Cellular phosphate levels are tightly controlled by sodium phosphate cotransporters, underscoring their importance in cellular physiology. The role of sodium phosphate cotransporters in ectopic calcification requires further elucidation, taking into account their important role in the control of intracellular phosphate levels and the synthesis of ATP, the main source of extracellular pyrophosphate (a potent endogenous inhibitor of calcification). In this review, we discuss the roles of phosphate and pyrophosphate homeostasis in ectopic calcification, with a specific focus on phosphate transporters. We concentrate on the five known sodium-dependent phosphate transporters and review their localisation and regulation by external factors, and the effects observed in knockout studies and in naturally occurring mutations.

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