Vol 69, No 3 (2018)
Original paper
Published online: 2018-04-12

open access

Page views 1356
Article views/downloads 1209
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Intellectual performance of children of mothers with an untreated thyroid disorder in the first trimester of pregnancy

Irena Komendová12, Sylvie Špitálníková2
Pubmed: 29645066
Endokrynol Pol 2018;69(3):241-245.

Abstract

Introduction: The focus of the present study was the importance of the mother’s thyroid function for foetal development in the first trimester, when the baby is totally dependent on the mother for thyroid hormones. Material and Methods: The study consisted in testing the intellectual performance of children with both euthyroid and thyroid-dysfunction mothers. The experimental group comprised 60 children of mothers with an untreated thyroid disorder in the first trimester of their pregnancy (TSH≥3.5 and/or TPO-Ab≥20). The control group contained 132 children whose mothers showed no symptoms of a thyroid disorder either before or during pregnancy/postpartum. Both groups of children were administered the WISC-III, whereby the intellectual performance of the experimental-group children was compared with that of the control-group children. The comparison included the percentage of children with IQ≤ 85 and SLD and/or ADD risks. Our research is a follow-up to a blanket thyroid screening of 1 649 pregnant women conducted during 2004-2006 in the region around Havlíčkův Brod. Results: The research found no significant difference between the two groups of children with respect to their intellectual abilities, either regarding their overall IQ (p=0.67), verbal IQ (p=0.81), performance IQ (p=0.41), or the individual scores (ISP: p=0.85; IPU: p=0.54, IKO: p=0.57; IRZ: p=0.13), nor did the experimental group show a significantly higher occurrence of children with IQ≤85 than the control group (p=0.66). However, the experimental group did exhibit a statistically significant increase in the percentage of children with a suspected SLD or clinically significant attention issues (p =0.05). Conclusion: Untreated thyroid disorders in the first trimester of pregnancy can increase the risk of the child developing attention or learning issues.

< p > < /p >

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file

References

  1. Vulsma T, Gons MH, de Vijlder JJ. Maternal-fetal transfer of thyroxine in congenital hypothyroidism due to a total organification defect or thyroid agenesis. N Engl J Med. 1989; 321(1): 13–16.
  2. Haddow JE, Palomaki GE, Allan WC, et al. Maternal thyroid deficiency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341(8): 549–555.
  3. Craig WY, Allan WC, Kloza EM, et al. Mid-gestational maternal free thyroxine concentration and offspring neurocognitive development at age two years. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(1): E22–E28.
  4. Pop VJ, Brouwers EP, Vader HL, et al. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia during early pregnancy and subsequent child development: a 3-year follow-up study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003; 59(3): 282–288.
  5. Li Y, Shan Z, Teng W, et al. Abnormalities of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy affect neuropsychological development of their children at 25-30 months. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010; 72(6): 825–829.
  6. Murphy NC, Diviney MM, Donnelly JC, et al. The effect of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on IQ in 7- to 8-year-old children: A case-control review. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2015; 55(5): 459–463.
  7. Špitálníková S. [Autoimmune thyroid disease in pregnancy and puerperium] [dissertation]. Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Hradec Kralove (CZ) 2011.
  8. Kaufman AS, Lichtenberger EO. Essentials of WISC-III and WPPSI-R Assessment. Wiley, New York 2000.
  9. Päkkilä F, Männistö T, Pouta A, et al. The impact of gestational thyroid hormone concentrations on ADHD symptoms of the child. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(1): E1–E8.
  10. Modesto T, Tiemeier H, Peeters RP, et al. Maternal Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency in Early Pregnancy and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children. JAMA Pediatr. 2015; 169(9): 838–845.
  11. Ghassabian A, Bongers-Schokking JJ, de Rijke YB, et al. Maternal thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy and the risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems in children: the Generation R Study. Thyroid. 2012; 22(2): 178–186.
  12. Man E, Jones W. Thyroid function in human pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1969; 104(6): 898–908.
  13. Lischinsky JE, Skocic J, Clairman H, et al. Preliminary Findings Show Maternal Hypothyroidism May Contribute to Abnormal Cortical Morphology in Offspring. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2016; 7: 16.
  14. Mirsky A, Pascualvaca D, Duncan C, et al. A model of attention and its relation to ADHD. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 1999; 5(3): 169–176, doi: 10.1002/(sici)1098-2779(1999)5:3<169::aid-mrdd2>3.0.co;2-k.
  15. Henrichs J, Bongers-Schokking JJ, Schenk JJ, et al. Maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy and cognitive functioning in early childhood: the generation R study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95(9): 4227–4234.
  16. Noten AME, Loomans EM, Vrijkotte TGM, et al. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy and school performance in 5-year-old offspring. Eur J Endocrinol. 2015; 173(5): 563–571.
  17. Williams GR. Neurodevelopmental and neurophysiological actions of thyroid hormone. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008; 20(6): 784–794.