Vol 68, No 5 (2017)
Original paper
Published online: 2017-08-30

open access

Page views 2251
Article views/downloads 1257
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Is there any difference in acromegaly and other chronic disease in quality of life and psychiatric morbidity?

Dorota Maria Szcześniak, Aleksandra Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Łukasz Matusiak, Anna Bolanowska, Julian Maciaszek, Małgorzata Siemińska, Joanna Rymaszewska, Marek Bolanowski
Pubmed: 28879648
Endokrynol Pol 2017;68(5):524-532.


Introduction: The study aimed to evaluate the psychological profile of patients with acromegaly in comparison to other chronic diseases such as non-functioning pituitary adenomas, Cushing disease, and plaque psoriasis, and to a healthy control group.

Material and methods: A total sample of 153 participants in clinical groups underwent a cross-sectional assessment including the quality of life (AcroQoL, WHOQoL-BREF), psychiatric morbidity (GHQ-28), and the acceptance of illness (AIS), as well as 65 participants in the healthy control group.

Results: The whole study sample had a predominance of urban married females (61%) with medium level of education (41%). Patients with acromegaly were diagnosed significantly later than patients from other clinical groups, after the onset of the first symptoms. Acromegaly was related to the presence of more symptoms of anxiety and insomnia, and poorer social relationships compared with the general population but not more than in other chronic diseases.

A better quality of life score in all domains of WHOQoL-BREF was associated with a better score on the acceptance of illness scale and lower scores on GHQ-28.

Conclusions: Psychiatric morbidity, mainly anxiety and insomnia, occurs in 50% of patients with acromegaly. However, the psychological wellbeing and mood seem to be related to other factors such as the acceptance of the illness. Thus, concerning the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of acromegaly an interdisciplinary approach, taking into account psychological and psychiatric consultation, is needed.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Yedinak CG, Fleseriu M. Self-perception of cognitive function among patients with active acromegaly, controlled acromegaly, and non-functional pituitary adenoma: a pilot study. Endocrine. 2014; 46(3): 585–593.
  2. Adelman DT, Liebert KJp, Nachtigall LB, et al. Acromegaly: the disease, its impact on patients, and managing the burden of long-term treatment. Int J Gen Med. 2013; 6: 31–38.
  3. Szcześniak D, Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska A, Rymaszewska J. The quality of life and psychological, social and cognitive functioning of patients with acromegaly. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2015; 24(1): 167–172.
  4. Webb SM, Badia X. Quality of life in acromegaly. Neuroendocrinology. 2016; 103(1): 106–11.
  5. Rowles SV, Prieto L, Badia X, et al. Quality of life (QOL) in patients with acromegaly is severely impaired: use of a novel measure of QOL: acromegaly quality of life questionnaire. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90(6): 3337–3341.
  6. Melmed S, Casanueva FF, Klibanski A, et al. A consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly complications. Pituitary. 2012; 16(3): 294–302.
  7. Bolanowski M, Ruchała M, Zgliczyński W, et al. Acromegaly--a novel view of the patient. Polish proposals for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the light of recent reports. Endokrynol Pol. 2014; 65(4): 326–331.
  8. Webb SM, Badia X, Surinach NL, et al. Spanish AcroQol Study Group. Validity and clinical applicability of the acromegaly quality of life questionnaire, AcroQoL: a 6-month prospective study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006; 155(2): 269–277.
  9. Biermasz NR, van Thiel SW, Pereira AM, et al. Decreased quality of life in patients with acromegaly despite long-term cure of growth hormone excess. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 89(11): 5369–5376.
  10. Matta MP, Couture E, Cazals L, et al. Impaired quality of life of patients with acromegaly: control of GH/IGF-I excess improves psychological subscale appearance. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008; 158(3): 305–310.
  11. Vandeva S, Yaneva M, Natchev E, et al. Disease control and treatment modalities have impact on quality of life in acromegaly evaluated by Acromegaly Quality of Life (AcroQoL) Questionnaire. Endocrine. 2015; 49(3): 774–782.
  12. Crespo I, Valassi E, Santos A, et al. Health-related quality of life in pituitary diseases. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015; 44(1): 161–170.
  13. Anagnostis P, Efstathiadou ZA, Charizopoulou M, et al. Psychological profile and quality of life in patients with acromegaly in Greece. Is there any difference with other chronic diseases? Endocrine. 2014; 47(2): 564–571.
  14. Geraedts VJ, Dimopoulou C, Auer M, et al. Health Outcomes in Acromegaly: Depression and Anxiety are Promising Targets for Improving Reduced Quality of Life. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2014; 5: 229.
  15. Sonino N, Tomba E, Fava GA. Psychosocial approach to endocrine disease. Adv Psychosom Med. 2007; 28: 21–33.
  16. Andela CD, Scharloo M, Pereira AM, et al. Quality of life (QoL) impairments in patients with a pituitary adenoma: a systematic review of QoL studies. Pituitary. 2015; 18(5): 752–776.
  17. Giustina A, Chanson P, Bronstein MD, et al. Acromegaly Consensus Group. A consensus on criteria for cure of acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 95(7): 3141–3148.
  18. Giustina A, Bronstein MD, Casanueva FF, et al. Current management practices for acromegaly: an international survey. Pituitary. 2011; 14(2): 125–133.
  19. Witek P, Zieliński G, Szamotulska K, et al. Complications of Cushing's disease - prospective evaluation and clinical characteristics. Do they affect the efficacy of surgical treatment? Endokrynol Pol. 2012; 63(4): 277–285.
  20. Nieman LK, Biller BM, Findling JW, et al. The diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 95: 1526–1540.
  21. Sharma ST, Nieman LK, Feelders RA. Cushing's syndrome: epidemiology and developments in disease management. Clin Epidemiol. 2015; 7: 281–293.
  22. Zawada NB, Kunert-Radek J, Pawlikowski M, et al. An evaluation of the effects of somatostatin analogue therapy in non-functioning pituitary adenomas in comparison to acromegaly. Endokrynol Pol. 2016; 67(3): 292–298.
  23. Alexander JM, Biller BM, Bikkal H, et al. Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors are monoclonal in origin. J Clin Invest. 1990; 86(1): 336–340.
  24. Finlay AY, Khan GK. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI)--a simple practical measure for routine clinical use. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1994; 19(3): 210–216.
  25. Szepietowski J, Salomon J, Finlay AY, et al. Dermatology life quality index (DLQI): Polish version. Dermatol Klin. 2004; 6(2): 63–70.
  26. Jaracz K, Kalfoss M, Górna K, et al. Quality of life in Polish respondents: psychometric properties of the Polish WHOQOL-Bref. Scand J Caring Sci. 2006; 20(3): 251–260.
  27. Skevington SM, Lotfy M, O'Connell KA, et al. WHOQOL Group. The World Health Organization's WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment: psychometric properties and results of the international field trial. A report from the WHOQOL group. Qual Life Res. 2004; 13(2): 299–310.
  28. Goldberg D, Williams P. General health questionnaire (GHQ). nferNelson, Swindon, Wiltshire, UK 1988: nferNelson.
  29. Makowska Z, Merecz D. Polska adaptacja Kwestionariuszy Ogólnego Stanu Zdrowia Davida Goldberga. [Polish adaptation of David Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaires] Ocena zdrowia psychicznego na podstawie badań kwestionariuszem Dawida Goldberga. Podręcznik dla użytkowników kwestionariuszy GHQ-12 i GHQ-28, pp. 191–264. In: Dudek B. ed. Dudek B (ed) Ocena zdrowia psychicznego na podstawie badań kwestionariuszem Dawida Goldberga. Podręcznik dla użytkowników kwestionariuszy GHQ-12 i GHQ-28. Oficyna Wydawnicza Instytutu Medycyny Pracy im. Prof. J. Nofera, Łódź 2010: 191–264.
  30. Felton BJ, Revension TA, Hionrichsen GA, et al. The Acceptance of Illness Scale, AIS. In: editor. Measurements Instruments in Health promotion and Psychooncology]. Laboratory of Psychological Tests, pp. 162-166. : Warszawa.
  31. Witek P, Zieliński G, Maksymowicz M, et al. Cushing's disease -- assessing the efficacy of transsphenoidal surgery. Endokrynol Pol. 2012; 63(5): 398–404.
  32. Celik O, Kadioglu P, Niyazoglu M, et al. Quality of life in female patients with acromegaly. J Endocrinol Invest. 2013; 36(6): 412–416.
  33. Raappana A, Pirilä T, Ebeling T, et al. Long-term health-related quality of life of surgically treated pituitary adenoma patients: a descriptive study. ISRN Endocrinol. 2012; 2012: 675310.
  34. Mattoo SK, Bhansali AK, Gupta N, et al. Psychosocial morbidity in acromegaly: a study from India. Endocrine. 2008; 34(1-3): 17–22.
  35. Sievers C, Ising M, Pfister H, et al. Personality in patients with pituitary adenomas is characterized by increased anxiety-related traits: comparison of 70 acromegalic patients with patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas and age- and gender-matched controls. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009; 160(3): 367–373.
  36. Miller A, Doll H, David J, et al. Impact of musculoskeletal disease on quality of life in long-standing acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008; 158(5): 587–593.