Vol 66, No 4 (2015)
Original paper
Published online: 2015-08-31

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Congenital hyperinsulinism in polish patients — how can we optimize clinical management?

Marta Buraczewska, Ewa Szymanska, Agnieszka Brandt, Przemyslawa Jarosz-Chobot, Jolanta Sykut-Cegielska, Ewa Barg, Maciej Borowiec, Wojciech Młynarski, Małgorzata Myśliwiec
DOI: 10.5603/EP.2015.0041
Pubmed: 26323469
Endokrynol Pol 2015;66(4):322-328.

Abstract

Introduction: Congenital hyperinsulinism of Infancy (CHI) comprises heterogenic defects of insulin secretion with diverse molecular aetiology, histological features, severity of symptoms, and response to pharmacotherapy. The study aimed to establish the first clinical characteristics of Polish patients with CHI and to propose a novel clinical algorithm allowing the prioritisation of genetic and radiology studies, based on patient’s characteristics and response to pharmacotherapy.

Material and methods: Thirty-one patients with CHI were recruited from five reference centres in Poland. Clinical and biochemical parameters were statistically evaluated and compared to those of a control group (n = 30).

Results: CHI predisposes to increased birth weight (p = 0.004), lower Apgar score (p = 0.004), perinatal complications (74%), and neurological implications (48%). Diagnostic process and therapy were inconsistent. A trial of pharmacotherapy was applied in 21 patients (68%), and diagnostic imaging with 18F-L-DOPA PET was performed in only 3. Eighteen patients (58%) were surgically treated, including 8 infants (44%) aged less than 2 months. Depending on the type of resection, further hypoglycaemia was observed postoperatively in 50% (n = 9) and hyperglycaemia in 39% (n = 7) of cases. Based on foregoing results, a clinical algorithm was proposed.

Conclusions: Standardisation of clinical management with the use of pharmacotherapy, genetic screening, and diagnostic imaging will allow the optimisation of therapy and minimisation of treatment complications. (Endokrynol Pol 2015; 66 (4): 322–328)