Vol 64, No 5 (2013)
Original paper
Published online: 2013-11-01

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Relationship between primary aldosteronism and obstructive sleep apnoea, metabolic abnormalities and cardiac structure in patients with resistant hypertension

Aleksander Prejbisz, Elżbieta Florczak, Anna Klisiewicz, Piotr Dobrowolski, Hanna Janaszek-Sitkowska, Przemysław Bieleń, Elżbieta Szwench-Pietrasz, Ewa Warchoł-Celińska, Sylwia Kołodziejczyk-Kruk, Jadwiga Janas, Marek Kabat, Jacek Imiela, Paweł Śliwiński, Andrzej Januszewicz
DOI: 10.5603/EP.2013.0019
Endokrynol Pol 2013;64(5):363-367.

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate in patients with resistant hypertension (RHTN) enrolled in the RESIST-POL study the relationship
between primary aldosteronism (PA) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and their effect on metabolic abnormalities and cardiac structure.

Material and methods: We included 204 patients (123 M, 81 F, mean age 48.4 yrs) with true RHTN, eGFR > 60 mL/min/1,73 m2 and no known
diabetes. OSA was defined as an apnoea/hypopnoea index of 15/h or more. Metabolic syndrome components were assessed. On echocardiography,
left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), concentric remodelling (RWT > 0.45), E’ velocity, E/E’ index and global strain (GLS) were evaluated.

Results: PA was diagnosed in 32 patients (15.7%). OSA occurred more frequently in patients with PA (59.4 v. 42.4%; p = 0.058). Patients
were divided into four groups: PA+ OSA+ , PA+ OSA-, PA-OSA+ and PA–OSA–. Newly diagnosed diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance
and increased fasting glucose were most frequent in the PA+ OSA+ group compared to other groups. The presence of OSA was associated
with concentric remodelling, and the presence of PA was associated with higher left ventricular mass and higher frequency of left
ventricular hypertrophy. In the PA+ OSA+ and PA+ OSA- groups, the most frequent geometry patterns were concentric hypertrophy
(68.4%) and eccentric hypertrophy (54.5%) respectively. E’ velocity was lowest and E/E’ was highest in PA+ OSA+ compared to other
groups. GLS was lower in patients with OSA compared to those without OSA.

Conclusions: Both metabolic abnormalities and target organ damage are more pronounced in patients with RHTN, PA and OSA. OSA
and PA influence differently left ventricular geometry.

(Endokrynol Pol 2013; 64 (5): 363–367)