Vol 31, No 1 (2024)
Original Article
Published online: 2023-02-27

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Characteristics of women with type 2 diabetes and heart failure in Spain. The DIABET-IC study

Luis Rodríguez‐Padial1, Antonio Pérez2, Manuel Anguita Sánchez3, Vivencio Barrios4, Jose Antonio Gimeno-Orna5, Javier Muñiz6
Pubmed: 36896635
Cardiol J 2024;31(1):103-110.


Background: Heart failure (HF) is the second most common initial presentation of cardiovascular disease in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM carries an increased risk of HF in women. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical characteristics and the treatment received by women with HF and T2DM in Spain.

Methods: The DIABET-IC study included 1517 patients with T2DM in 2018–2019 in Spain, in 30 centers, which included the first 20 patients with T2DM seen in cardiology and endocrinology clinics. They underwent clinical evaluation, echocardiography, and analysis, with a 3-year follow-up. Baseline data are presented in this study.

Results: 1517 patients were included (501 women; aged 67.28 ± 10.06 years). Women were older (68.81 ± 9.90 vs. 66.53 ± 10.06 years; p < 0.001) and had a lower frequency of a history of coronary disease. There was a history of HF in 554 patients, which was more frequent in women (38.04% vs. 32.86%; p < 0.001), and preserved ejection fraction being more frequent in them (16.12% vs. 9.00%; p < 0.001). There were 240 patients with reduced ejection fraction. Women less frequently received treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (26.20% vs. 36.79%), neprilysin inhibitors (6.00% vs. 13.51%), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (17.40% vs. 23.08%), beta-blockers (52.40% vs. 61.44%), and ivabradine (3.60% vs. 7.10%) (p < 0.001 for all), and 58% received guideline-directed medical therapy.

Conclusions: A selected cohort with HF and T2DM attending cardiology and endocrinology clinics did not receive optimal treatment, and this finding was more pronounced in women.

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