open access

Vol 25, No 4 (2018)
POSITION PAPER
Published online: 2018-09-12
Get Citation

Use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation — Messages from the 2018 EHRA

Anna Tomaszuk-Kazberuk, Lukasz Kołtowski, Paweł Balsam, Marek Koziński, Agnieszka Kapłon-Cieślicka, Karolina Kupczyńska, Justyna Domienik-Karłowicz, Anna Budaj-Fidecka, Piotr Buszman, Maciej Wybraniec, Paweł Burchardt, Błażej Michalski, Miłosz J. Jaguszewski
DOI: 10.5603/CJ.2018.0080
·
Pubmed: 30211927
·
Cardiol J 2018;25(4):423-440.

open access

Vol 25, No 4 (2018)
POSITION PAPER
Published online: 2018-09-12

Abstract

Not available

Abstract

Not available
Get Citation
About this article
Title

Use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with atrial fibrillation — Messages from the 2018 EHRA

Journal

Cardiology Journal

Issue

Vol 25, No 4 (2018)

Pages

423-440

Published online

2018-09-12

DOI

10.5603/CJ.2018.0080

Pubmed

30211927

Bibliographic record

Cardiol J 2018;25(4):423-440.

Authors

Anna Tomaszuk-Kazberuk
Lukasz Kołtowski
Paweł Balsam
Marek Koziński
Agnieszka Kapłon-Cieślicka
Karolina Kupczyńska
Justyna Domienik-Karłowicz
Anna Budaj-Fidecka
Piotr Buszman
Maciej Wybraniec
Paweł Burchardt
Błażej Michalski
Miłosz J. Jaguszewski

References (151)
  1. Steffel J, Verhamme P, Potpara TS, et al. The 2018 European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2018; 39(16): 1330–1393.
  2. Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, et al. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace. 2013; 15(5): 625–651.
  3. Heidbuchel H, Verhamme P, Alings M, et al. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace. 2015; 17(10): 1467–1507.
  4. Kirchhof P, Benussi S, Kotecha D, et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS. Eur Heart J. 2016; 37(38): 2893–2962.
  5. Barnes GD, Ageno W, Ansell J, et al. Recommendation on the nomenclature for oral anticoagulants: communication from the SSC of the ISTH. J Thromb Haemost. 2015; 13(6): 1154–1156.
  6. Baumgartner H, Falk V, Bax JJ, et al. 2017 ESC/EACTS Guidelines for the management of valvular heart disease. Eur Heart J. 2017; 38(36): 2739–2791.
  7. Lip G, Collet J, Caterina R, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation associated with valvular heart disease: a joint consensus document from the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, endorsed by the ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease, Cardiac Arrhythmia Society of Southern Africa (CASSA), Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), South African Heart (SA Heart) Association and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE). EP Europace. 2017; 19(11): 1757–1758.
  8. Avezum A, Lopes RD, Schulte PJ, et al. Apixaban in comparison with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and valvular heart disease: findings from the apixaban for reduction in stroke and other thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial. Circulation. 2015; 132(8): 624–632.
  9. Ezekowitz MD, Nagarakanti R, Noack H, et al. Comparison of dabigatran and warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and valvular heart disease: the RE-LY trial (randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulant therapy). Circulation. 2016; 134(8): 589–598.
  10. Breithardt G, Baumgartner H, Berkowitz SD, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation but underlying native mitral and aortic valve disease participating in the ROCKET AF trial. Eur Heart J. 2014; 35(47): 3377–3385.
  11. De Caterina R, Renda G, Carnicelli AP, et al. Valvular heart disease patients on edoxaban or warfarin in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 69(11): 1372–1382.
  12. Pan KL, Singer DE, Ovbiagele B, et al. Effects of non-vitamin k antagonist oral anticoagulants versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and valvular heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017; 6(7).
  13. Noseworthy PA, Yao X, Shah ND, et al. Stroke and bleeding risks in NOAC- and warfarin-treated patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016; 67(25): 3020–3021.
  14. Dominguez F, Climent V, Zorio E, et al. Direct oral anticoagulants in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol. 2017; 248: 232–238.
  15. Lane D, Aguinaga L, Blomström-Lundqvist C, et al. Cardiac tachyarrhythmias and patient values and preferences for their management: the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) consensus document endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE). Europace. 2015; 17(12): 1747–1769.
  16. Heidbuchel H, Berti D, Campos M, et al. Implementation of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in daily practice: the need for comprehensive education for professionals and patients. Thromb J. 2015; 13: 22.
  17. Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, Braunwald E, et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369(22): 2093–2104.
  18. Valgimigli M, Bueno H, Byrne RA, et al. 2017 ESC focused update on dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease developed in collaboration with EACTS: The Task Force for dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). , 2018. Eur Heart J. 2018; 39(3): 213–260.
  19. Scarpignato C, Gatta L, Zullo A, et al. Effective and safe proton pump inhibitor therapy in acid-related diseases - A position paper addressing benefits and potential harms of acid suppression. BMC Med. 2016; 14(1): 179.
  20. Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, et al. Association of proton pump inhibitors with reduced risk of warfarin-related serious upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastroenterology. 2016; 151(6): 1105–1112.e10.
  21. Di Minno A, Spadarella G, Spadarella E, et al. Gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving oral anticoagulation: Current treatment and pharmacological perspectives. Thromb Res. 2015; 136(6): 1074–1081.
  22. Chan E, Lau W, Leung W, et al. Prevention of dabigatran-related gastrointestinal bleeding with gastroprotective agents: a population-based study. Gastroenterology. 2015; 149(3): 586–595.e3.
  23. Lane DA, Barker RV, Lip GYH. Best practice for atrial fibrillation patient education. Curr Pharm Des. 2015; 21(5): 533–543.
  24. Lane DA, Wood K. Cardiology patient page. Patient guide for taking the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2015; 131(16): e412–e415.
  25. Gallagher C, Elliott AD, Wong CX, et al. Integrated care in atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Heart. 2017; 103(24): 1947–1953.
  26. Carter L, Gardner M, Magee K, et al. An Integrated Management Approach to Atrial Fibrillation. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016; 5(1).
  27. Kirchhof P. The future of atrial fibrillation management: integrated care and stratified therapy. Lancet. 2017; 390(10105): 1873–1887.
  28. Raparelli V, Proietti M, Cangemi R, et al. Adherence to oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation. Focus on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. Thromb Haemost. 2017; 117(2): 209–218.
  29. Douxfils J, Ageno W, Samama CM, et al. Laboratory testing in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants: a practical guide for clinicians. J Thromb Haemost. 2018; 16(2): 209–219.
  30. Vinereanu D, Lopes RD, Bahit MC, et al. A multifaceted intervention to improve treatment with oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation (IMPACT-AF): an international, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2017; 390(10104): 1737–1746.
  31. Shore S, Ho PM, Lambert-Kerzner A, et al. Site-level variation in and practices associated with dabigatran adherence. JAMA. 2015; 313(14): 1443–1450.
  32. Santo K, Richtering SS, Chalmers J, et al. Mobile phone apps to improve medication adherence: a systematic stepwise process to identify high-quality apps. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2016; 4(4): e132.
  33. Guo Y, Chen Y, Lane DA, et al. Mobile health technology for atrial fibrillation management integrating decision support, education, and patient involvement: mAF app trial. Am J Med. 2017; 130(12): 1388–1396.e6.
  34. Laliberté F, Nelson WW, Lefebvre P, et al. Impact of daily dosing frequency on adherence to chronic medications among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients. Adv Ther. 2012; 29(8): 675–690.
  35. Weeda ER, Coleman CI, McHorney CA, et al. Impact of once- or twice-daily dosing frequency on adherence to chronic cardiovascular disease medications: A meta-regression analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2016; 216: 104–109.
  36. Bae JP, Dobesh PP, Klepser DG, et al. Adherence and dosing frequency of common medications for cardiovascular patients. Am J Manag Care. 2012; 18(3): 139–146.
  37. Ruff CT, Giugliano RP, Braunwald E, et al. Transition of patients from blinded study drug to open-label anticoagulation: the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014; 64(6): 576–584.
  38. Patel MR, Helkamp AS, Lokhnygina y, et al. Outcomes of discontinuing rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: analysis from the ROCKET AF trial (Rivaroxaban Once-Daily, Oral, Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013; 61(6): 651–658.
  39. Granger CB, Lopes RD, Hanna M, et al. Clinical events after transitioning from apixaban versus warfarin to warfarin at the end of the apixaban for reduction in stroke and other thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial. Am Heart J. 2015; 169(1): 25–30.
  40. Gnoth MJ, Buetehorn U, Muenster U, et al. In vitro and in vivo P-glycoprotein transport characteristics of rivaroxaban. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011; 338(1): 372–380.
  41. Mendell J, Zahir H, Matsushima N, et al. Drug-drug interaction studies of cardiovascular drugs involving P-glycoprotein, an efflux transporter, on the pharmacokinetics of edoxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2013; 13(5): 331–342.
  42. Mueck W, Kubitza D, Becka M. Co-administration of rivaroxaban with drugs that share its elimination pathways: pharmacokinetic effects in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013; 76(3): 455–466.
  43. Wang L, Zhang D, Raghavan N, et al. In vitro assessment of metabolic drug-drug interaction potential of apixaban through cytochrome P450 phenotyping, inhibition, and induction studies. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010; 38(3): 448–58.
  44. Mueck W, Stampfuss J, Kubitza D, et al. Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of rivaroxaban. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2014; 53(1): 1–16.
  45. Frost CE, Byon W, Song Y, et al. Effect of ketoconazole and diltiazem on the pharmacokinetics of apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2015; 79(5): 838–846.
  46. Parasrampuria DA, Mendell J, Shi M, et al. Edoxaban drug-drug interactions with ketoconazole, erythromycin, and cyclosporine. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016; 82(6): 1591–1600.
  47. Vakkalagadda B, Frost C, Byon W, et al. Effect of rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of apixaban, an oral direct inhibitor of factor xa. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2016; 16(2): 119–127.
  48. Stöllberger C, Finsterer J. Interactions between non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants and antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsy Res. 2016; 126: 98–101.
  49. Stöllberger C. Drug interactions with new oral anticoagulants in elderly patients. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017; 10(11): 1191–1202.
  50. Blech S, Ebner T, Ludwig-Schwellinger E, et al. The metabolism and disposition of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008; 36(2): 386–399.
  51. Stangier J, Stähle H, Rathgen K, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the direct oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran in healthy elderly subjects. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008; 47(1): 47–59.
  52. Mendell J, Tachibana M, Shi M, et al. Effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of edoxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2011; 51(5): 687–694.
  53. Liesenfeld KH, Lehr T, Dansirikul C, et al. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of the oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation from the RE-LY trial. J Thromb Haemost. 2011; 9(11): 2168–2175.
  54. Frost C, Shenker A, Gandhi MD, et al. Evaluation of the effect of naproxen on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of apixaban. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014; 78(4): 877–885.
  55. Ruff CT, Giugliano RP, Braunwald E, et al. Association between edoxaban dose, concentration, anti-Factor Xa activity, and outcomes: an analysis of data from the randomised, double-blind ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial. Lancet. 2015; 385(9984): 2288–2295.
  56. Bohula EA, Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, et al. Impact of renal function on outcomes with edoxaban in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial. Circulation. 2016; 134(1): 24–36.
  57. Hijazi Z, Hohnloser SH, Oldgren J, et al. Efficacy and safety of dabigatran compared with warfarin in relation to baseline renal function in patients with atrial fibrillation: a RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial analysis. Circulation. 2014; 129(9): 961–970.
  58. Fox KAA, Piccini JP, Wojdyla D, et al. Prevention of stroke and systemic embolism with rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and moderate renal impairment. Eur Heart J. 2011; 32(19): 2387–2394.
  59. Hohnloser SH, Hijazi Z, Thomas L, et al. Efficacy of apixaban when compared with warfarin in relation to renal function in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial. Eur Heart J. 2012; 33(22): 2821–2830.
  60. Hijazi Z, Hohnloser SH, Andersson U, et al. Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation in relation to renal function over time: insights from the ARISTOTLE randomized clinical trial. JAMA Cardiol. 2016; 1(4): 451–460.
  61. Fordyce CB, Piccini JP, Patel MR, et al. On-Treatment outcomes in patients with worsening renal function with rivaroxaban compared with warfarin: insights from ROCKET AF. Circulation. 2016; 134(1): 37–47.
  62. Khoury T, Ayman AR, Cohen J, et al. The complex role of anticoagulation in cirrhosis: an updated review of where we are and where we are going. Digestion. 2016; 93(2): 149–159.
  63. Lauschke VM, Ingelman-Sundberg M. The importance of patient-specific factors for hepatic drug response and toxicity. Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(10).
  64. Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(12): 1139–1151.
  65. Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J, et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365(10): 883–891.
  66. Granger CB, Alexander JH, McMurray JJV, et al. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365(11): 981–992.
  67. Kubitza D, Roth A, Becka M, et al. Effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single dose of rivaroxaban, an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013; 76(1): 89–98.
  68. Douxfils J, Mullier F, Loosen C, et al. Assessment of the impact of rivaroxaban on coagulation assays: laboratory recommendations for the monitoring of rivaroxaban and review of the literature. Thromb Res. 2012; 130(6): 956–966.
  69. Douxfils J, Mullier F, Robert S, et al. Impact of dabigatran on a large panel of routine or specific coagulation assays. Laboratory recommendations for monitoring of dabigatran etexilate. Thromb Haemost. 2012; 107(5): 985–997.
  70. Ogata K, Mendell-Harary J, Tachibana M, et al. Clinical safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the novel factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2010; 50(7): 743–753.
  71. Kubitza D, Becka M, Voith B, et al. Safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of single doses of BAY 59-7939, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005; 78(4): 412–421.
  72. van Ryn J, Stangier J, Haertter S, et al. Dabigatran etexilate--a novel, reversible, oral direct thrombin inhibitor: interpretation of coagulation assays and reversal of anticoagulant activity. Thromb Haemost. 2010; 103(6): 1116–1127.
  73. Ezekowitz MD, Reilly PA, Nehmiz G, et al. Dabigatran with or without concomitant aspirin compared with warfarin alone in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (PETRO Study). Am J Cardiol. 2007; 100(9): 1419–1426.
  74. Douxfils J, Chatelain C, Chatelain B, et al. Impact of apixaban on routine and specific coagulation assays: a practical laboratory guide. Thromb Haemost. 2013; 110(2): 283–294.
  75. Cuker A, Husseinzadeh H. Laboratory measurement of the anticoagulant activity of edoxaban: a systematic review. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2015; 39(3): 288–294.
  76. Tomaselli GF, Mahaffey KW, Cuker A, et al. 2017 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on Management of Bleeding in Patients on Oral Anticoagulants: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Expert Consensus Decision Pathways. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 70(24): 3042–3067.
  77. van Ryn J, Baruch L, Clemens A. Interpretation of point-of-care INR results in patients treated with dabigatran. Am J Med. 2012; 125(4): 417–420.
  78. Kaess BM, Ammar S, Reents T, et al. Comparison of safety of left atrial catheter ablation procedures for atrial arrhythmias under continuous anticoagulation with apixaban versus phenprocoumon. Am J Cardiol. 2015; 115(1): 47–51.
  79. Mani H, Herth N, Kasper A, et al. Point-of-care coagulation testing for assessment of the pharmacodynamic anticoagulant effect of direct oral anticoagulant. Ther Drug Monit. 2014; 36(5): 624–631.
  80. Godier A, Dincq AS, Martin AC, et al. Predictors of pre-procedural concentrations of direct oral anticoagulants: a prospective multicentre study. Eur Heart J. 2017; 38(31): 2431–2439.
  81. Auer J, Huber K, Granger CB. Interruption of non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants in patients undergoing planned invasive procedures: how long is long enough? Eur Heart J. 2017; 38(31): 2440–2443.
  82. Peetermans M, Pollack C, Reilly P, et al. Idarucizumab for dabigatran overdose. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2016; 54(8): 644–646.
  83. Pollack CV, Reilly PA, van Ryn J, et al. Idarucizumab for dabigatran reversal - full cohort analysis. N Engl J Med. 2017; 377(5): 431–441.
  84. Connolly SJ, Milling TJ, Eikelboom JW, et al. Andexanet alfa for acute major bleeding associated with factor xa inhibitors. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(12): 1131–1141.
  85. Ansell JE, Bakhru SH, Laulicht BE, et al. Use of PER977 to reverse the anticoagulant effect of edoxaban. N Engl J Med. 2014; 371(22): 2141–2142.
  86. Levi M, Eerenberg E, Kamphuisen PW. Bleeding risk and reversal strategies for old and new anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. J Thromb Haemost. 2011; 9(9): 1705–1712.
  87. Shakur H, Roberts I, Bautista R, et al. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010; 376(9734): 23–32.
  88. Poeran J, Rasul R, Suzuki S, et al. Tranexamic acid use and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty in the United States: retrospective analysis of effectiveness and safety. BMJ. 2014; 349: g4829.
  89. Tomaszuk-Kazberuk A, Łopatowska P, Młodawska E, et al. Successful use of idarucizumab as a reversal agent for dabigatran in a patient with acute dissected aortic aneurysm. Pol Arch Intern Med. 2017; 127(1): 68–70.
  90. Pruszczyk P, Tomaszuk-Kazberuk A, Słowik A, et al. Management of bleeding or urgent interventions in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants: 2017 recommendations for Poland. Pol Arch Intern Med. 2017; 127(5): 343–351.
  91. Beyer-Westendorf J, Förster K, Pannach S, et al. Rates, management, and outcome of rivaroxaban bleeding in daily care: results from the Dresden NOAC registry. Blood. 2014; 124(6): 955–962.
  92. Healey JS, Eikelboom J, Douketis J, et al. Periprocedural bleeding and thromboembolic events with dabigatran compared with warfarin: results from the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) randomized trial. Circulation. 2012; 126(3): 343–348.
  93. Zhou W, Schwarting S, Illanes S, et al. Hemostatic therapy in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage associated with the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran. Stroke. 2011; 42(12): 3594–3599.
  94. Pragst I, Zeitler SH, Doerr B, et al. Reversal of dabigatran anticoagulation by prothrombin complex concentrate (Beriplex P/N) in a rabbit model. J Thromb Haemost. 2012; 10(9): 1841–1848.
  95. Godier A, Miclot A, Le Bonniec B, et al. Evaluation of prothrombin complex concentrate and recombinant activated factor VII to reverse rivaroxaban in a rabbit model. Anesthesiology. 2012; 116(1): 94–102.
  96. Eerenberg ES, Kamphuisen PW, Sijpkens MK, et al. Reversal of rivaroxaban and dabigatran by prothrombin complex concentrate: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects. Circulation. 2011; 124(14): 1573–1579.
  97. Song Y, Wang Z, Perlstein I, et al. Reversal of apixaban anticoagulation by four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates in healthy subjects: a randomized three-period crossover study. J Thromb Haemost. 2017; 15(11): 2125–2137.
  98. Levi M, Moore KT, Castillejos CF, et al. Comparison of three-factor and four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates regarding reversal of the anticoagulant effects of rivaroxaban in healthy volunteers. J Thromb Haemost. 2014; 12(9): 1428–1436.
  99. Zahir H, Brown KS, Vandell AG, et al. Edoxaban effects on bleeding following punch biopsy and reversal by a 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate. Circulation. 2015; 131(1): 82–90.
  100. Gorczyca-Michta I, Wożakowska-Kapłon B. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion: New perspectives for the method. Cardiol J. 2017; 24(5): 554–562.
  101. Albaladejo P, Samama CM, et al. Management of severe bleeding in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants: an observational registry analysis. Anesthesiology. 2017; 127(1): 111–120.
  102. Majeed A, Ågren A, Holmström M, et al. Management of rivaroxaban- or apixaban-associated major bleeding with prothrombin complex concentrates: a cohort study. Blood. 2017; 130(15): 1706–1712.
  103. Hemphill JC, Greenberg SM, Anderson CS, et al. Guidelines for the Management of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2015; 46(7): 2032–2060.
  104. Kuramatsu J, Gerner S, Schellinger P, et al. Anticoagulant reversal, blood pressure levels, and anticoagulant resumption in patients with anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage. JAMA. 2015; 313(8): 824–836.
  105. Gerner ST, Kuramatsu JB, Sembill JA, et al. Association of prothrombin complex concentrate administration and hematoma enlargement in non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant-related intracerebral hemorrhage. Ann Neurol. 2018; 83(1): 186–196.
  106. Kermer P, Eschenfelder CC, Diener HC, et al. Antagonizing dabigatran by idarucizumab in cases of ischemic stroke or intracranial hemorrhage in Germany - A national case collection. Int J Stroke. 2017; 12(4): 383–391.
  107. Purrucker JC, Haas K, Rizos T, et al. Coagulation testing in acute ischemic stroke patients taking non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. Stroke. 2017; 48(1): 152–158.
  108. Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2018; 49(3): e46–e110.
  109. Tse DM, Young L, Ranta A, et al. Intravenous alteplase and endovascular clot retrieval following reversal of dabigatran with idarucizumab. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2018; 89(5): 549–550.
  110. Xian Y, Federspiel JJ, Hernandez AF, et al. Use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in patients with acute ischemic stroke who take non-vitamin k antagonist oral anticoagulants before stroke. Circulation. 2017; 135(11): 1024–1035.
  111. Seiffge DJ, Traenka C, Polymeris AA, et al. Intravenous thrombolysis in patients with stroke taking rivaroxaban using drug specific plasma levels: experience with a standard operation procedure in clinical practice. J Stroke. 2017; 19(3): 347–355.
  112. Drouet L, Bal Dit Sollier C, Steiner T, et al. Measuring non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant levels: When is it appropriate and which methods should be used? Int J Stroke. 2016; 11(7): 748–758.
  113. Saver JL, Goyal M, van der Lugt A, et al. Time to treatment with endovascular thrombectomy and outcomes from ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2016; 316(12): 1279–1288.
  114. Purrucker JC, Wolf M, Haas K, et al. Safety of endovascular thrombectomy in patients receiving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. Stroke. 2016; 47(4): 1127–1130.
  115. Wahlgren N, Moreira T, Michel P, et al. Mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke: Consensus statement by ESO-Karolinska Stroke Update 2014/2015, supported by ESO, ESMINT, ESNR and EAN. Int J Stroke. 2016; 11(1): 134–147.
  116. Deharo JC, Sciaraffia E, Leclercq C, et al. Perioperative management of antithrombotic treatment during implantation or revision of cardiac implantable electronic devices: the European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI). Europace. 2016; 18(5): 778–784.
  117. Beyer-Westendorf J, Gelbricht V, Förster K, et al. Peri-interventional management of novel oral anticoagulants in daily care: results from the prospective Dresden NOAC registry. Eur Heart J. 2014; 35(28): 1888–1896.
  118. Douketis JD, Spyropoulos AC, Kaatz S, et al. Perioperative Bridging Anticoagulation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2015; 373(9): 823–833.
  119. Calkins H, Hindricks G, Cappato R, et al. 2017 HRS/EHRA/ECAS/APHRS/SOLAECE expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: executive summary. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2017; 50(1): 1–55.
  120. Haeusler KG, Kirchhof P, Endres M. Left atrial catheter ablation and ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2012; 43(1): 265–270.
  121. Douketis JD, Spyropoulos AC, Anderson JM, et al. The Perioperative Anticoagulant Use for Surgery Evaluation (PAUSE) Study for Patients on a Direct Oral Anticoagulant Who Need an Elective Surgery or Procedure: Design and Rationale. Thromb Haemost. 2017; 117(12): 2415–2424.
  122. Levy JH, Ageno W, Chan NC, et al. When and how to use antidotes for the reversal of direct oral anticoagulants: guidance from the SSC of the ISTH. J Thromb Haemost. 2016; 14(3): 623–627.
  123. Albaladejo P, Bonhomme F, Blais N, et al. Management of direct oral anticoagulants in patients undergoing elective surgeries and invasive procedures: Updated guidelines from the French Working Group on Perioperative Hemostasis (GIHP) - September 2015. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med. 2017; 36(1): 73–76.
  124. Cocco G, Amiet P, Jerie P. Anti-thromboembolic strategies in atrial fibrillation. Cardiol J. 2016; 23(2): 211–223.
  125. Gibson CM, Mehran R, Bode C, et al. An open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter study exploring two treatment strategies of rivaroxaban and a dose-adjusted oral vitamin K antagonist treatment strategy in subjects with atrial fibrillation who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PIONEER AF-PCI). Am Heart J. 2015; 169(4): 472–8.e5.
  126. Cannon CP, Bhatt DL, Oldgren J, et al. Dual antithrombotic therapy with dabigatran after PCI in atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2017; 377(16): 1513–1524.
  127. Urban P, Meredith IT, Abizaid A, et al. Polymer-free drug-coated coronary stents in patients at high bleeding risk. N Engl J Med. 2015; 373(21): 2038–2047.
  128. Varenne O, Cook S, Sideris G, et al. Drug-eluting stents in elderly patients with coronary artery disease (SENIOR): a randomised single-blind trial. Lancet. 2018; 391(10115): 41–50.
  129. Kupczynska K, Kasprzak JD, Michalski BW, et al. The impact of the latest echocardiographic chamber quantification recommendations on the prediction of left atrial appendage thrombus presence by transthoracic echocardiography. Acta Cardiol. 2018; 73(1): 91–95.
  130. January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2014; 130(23): e199–e267.
  131. Hansen ML, Jepsen RM, Olesen JB, et al. Thromboembolic risk in 16 274 atrial fibrillation patients undergoing direct current cardioversion with and without oral anticoagulant therapy. Europace. 2015; 17(1): 18–23.
  132. Grönberg T, Hartikainen JEK, Nuotio I, et al. Anticoagulation, CHA2DS2VASc Score, and Thromboembolic Risk of Cardioversion of Acute Atrial Fibrillation (from the FinCV Study). Am J Cardiol. 2016; 117(8): 1294–1298.
  133. Nuotio I, Hartikainen JEK, Grönberg T, et al. Time to cardioversion for acute atrial fibrillation and thromboembolic complications. JAMA. 2014; 312(6): 647–649.
  134. Lip GYH, Hammerstingl C, Marin F, et al. Left atrial thrombus resolution in atrial fibrillation or flutter: Results of a prospective study with rivaroxaban (X-TRA) and a retrospective observational registry providing baseline data (CLOT-AF). Am Heart J. 2016; 178: 126–134.
  135. Ruff CT, Giugliano RP, Braunwald E, et al. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet. 2014; 383(9921): 955–962.
  136. Kato ET, Giugliano RP, Ruff CT, et al. Efficacy and safety of edoxaban in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016; 5(5).
  137. Man-Son-Hing M, Nichol G, Lau A, et al. Choosing antithrombotic therapy for elderly patients with atrial fibrillation who are at risk for falls. Arch Intern Med. 1999; 159(7): 677–685.
  138. Rao MP, Vinereanu D, Wojdyla DM, et al. Clinical outcomes and history of fall in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial. Am J Med. 2018; 131(3): 269–275.e2.
  139. Steffel J, Giugliano RP, Braunwald E, et al. Edoxaban versus warfarin in atrial fibrillation patients at risk of falling: ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016; 68(11): 1169–1178.
  140. Tricco AC, Thomas SM, Veroniki AA, et al. Comparisons of Interventions for Preventing Falls in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2017; 318(17): 1687–1699.
  141. Friberg L, Rosenqvist M. Less dementia with oral anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2018; 39(6): 453–460.
  142. Dietzel J, Haeusler KG, Endres M. Does atrial fibrillation cause cognitive decline and dementia? Europace. 2018; 20(3): 408–419.
  143. Chagnac A, Weinstein T, Korzets A, et al. Glomerular hemodynamics in severe obesity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000; 278(5): F817–F822.
  144. Martin K, Beyer-Westendorf J, Davidson BL, et al. Use of the direct oral anticoagulants in obese patients: guidance from the SSC of the ISTH. J Thromb Haemost. 2016; 14(6): 1308–1313.
  145. Sandhu RK, Ezekowitz J, Andersson U, et al. The 'obesity paradox' in atrial fibrillation: observations from the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Eur Heart J. 2016; 37(38): 2869–2878.
  146. De Caterina R, Lip GYH. The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and extremes of body weight-a systematic literature review. Clin Res Cardiol. 2017; 106(8): 565–572.
  147. Stefanidou M, Das RR, Beiser AS, et al. Incidence of seizures following initial ischemic stroke in a community-based cohort: The Framingham Heart Study. Seizure. 2017; 47: 105–110.
  148. Beghi E, D'Alessandro R, Beretta S, et al. Incidence and predictors of acute symptomatic seizures after stroke. Neurology. 2011; 77(20): 1785–1793.
  149. Raskob GE, van Es N, Verhamme P, et al. Edoxaban for the treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2018; 378(7): 615–624.
  150. Brunetti ND, Gesuete E, De Gennaro L, et al. Direct oral anti-coagulants compared with vitamin-K inhibitors and low-molecular-weight-heparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: A meta-analysis study. Int J Cardiol. 2017; 230: 214–221.
  151. Short NJ, Connors JM. New oral anticoagulants and the cancer patient. Oncologist. 2014; 19(1): 82–93.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland
tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, fax:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl