Vol 31, No 1 (2024)
Review Article
Published online: 2023-10-19

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Cangrelor — Expanding therapeutic options in patients with acute coronary syndrome

Jacek Kubica1, Piotr Adamski1, Sławomir Dobrzycki2, Robert Gajda3, Mariusz Gąsior4, Marek Gierlotka5, Miłosz Jaguszewski6, Jacek Legutko78, Maciej Lesiak9, Eliano P. Navarese1, Piotr Niezgoda1, Małgorzata Ostrowska1, Tomasz Pawłowski10, Agnieszka Tycińska11, Julia M. Umińska1, Adam Witkowski12, Robert Gil10
Pubmed: 37964649
Cardiol J 2024;31(1):133-146.

Abstract

Cangrelor is the only intravenous P2Y12 receptor antagonist. It is an adenosine triphosphate analog that selectively, directly, and reversibly binds to the platelet P2Y12 receptors exerting its antiaggregatory effect. Cangrelor is characterized by linear, dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and rapid onset of action providing potent platelet inhibition exceeding 90%. Cangrelor is rapidly metabolized by endothelial endonucleotidase; thus, its half-life is 2.9 to 5.5 min, and its antiplatelet effect subsides within 60 to 90 min. Data originating from three pivotal cangrelor trials (CHAMPION PLATFORM, CHAMPION PCI, and CHAMPION PHOENIX) indicate that cangrelor reduces the risk of periprocedural thrombotic complications during percutaneous coronary intervention at the expense of mild bleedings. Its unique pharmacological properties allow it to overcome the limitations of oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, mainly related to the delayed and decreased bioavailability and antiplatelet effect of these agents, which are often observed in the setting of acute coronary syndrome. Subgroups of patients who could theoretically benefit the most from cangrelor include those in whom pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral P2Y12 receptor antagonists are most disturbed, namely patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, those treated with opioids, with mild therapeutic hypothermia, or in cardiogenic shock. Cangrelor could also be useful if bridging is required in patients undergoing surgery. According to the current guidelines cangrelor may be considered in P2Y12 receptor inhibitor-naïve patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in both acute and stable settings.

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