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Published online: 2024-01-18

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Gender differences in clinical features and outcomes of patients over 75 years presenting with acute heart failure. Results of a nationwide study (2016–2019)

María Anguita-Gámez1, Alberto Esteban-Fernández2, Juan L. Bonilla-Palomas3, José L. Bernal4, Náyade del Prado4, Cristina Fernández-Pérez4, Francisco J. Elola-Somoza4, Manuel Anguita-Sánchez5
Pubmed: 38247437

Abstract

Background: Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem in Western countries, and a leading cause of hospitalizations and death. There is a scarcity of data on the influence of sex on HF outcomes in elderly patients. The aim of the present study was to analyze differences between men and women in clinical characteristics, in-hospital mortality, 30-day HF readmission rates, cardiovascular mortality and HF readmission rates at 1 year after discharge in patients older than 75 years hospitalized for HF in Spain.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients discharged with a main diagnosis of HF from all Spanish public hospitals between 2016 and 2019. Patients aged 75 years or older were selected, and a comparison was made between male and female patients.

Results: From 2016 to 2019, a total of 354,786 episodes of HF in this age subgroup were identified, 59.2% being women. The overall mean age was 85.2 ± 5.4 years, being higher in women (85.9 ± 5.5 vs. 84.2 ± 5.3 years, p < 0.001). Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was lower in women (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92–0.97; p < 0.001). Female sex also showed a protective effect for 30-day readmissions, with an OR of 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04–1.09; p < 0.001). One-year cardiovascular mortality (24.1% vs. 25.0%; p < 0.001) and one-year HF readmission rates (30.8% vs. 31.6%; p = 0.001) were lower in women.

Conclusions: Almost 60% of hospital admissions for HF in people aged 75 years or older between 2016 and 2019 in Spain were female patients. Female sex seems to play a protective role on in-hospital mortality and the rate of admissions and mortality at 1 year after discharge.

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