Vol 19, No 3 (2012)
Original articles
Published online: 2012-05-28

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Evaluation of coronary artery abnormalities in Williams syndrome patients using myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and CT angiography

Yakup Ergul, Kemal Nisli, Hulya Kayserili, Birsen Karaman, Seher Basaran, Memduh Dursun, Ebru Yilmaz, Nurhan Ergul, Seher Nilgun Unal, Aygun Dindar
Cardiol J 2012;19(3):301-308.

Abstract

Background: Sudden death risk in Williams syndrome (WS) patients has been shown to be 25–100 times higher than in the general population. This study aims to detect coronary artery anomalies and myocardial perfusion defects in WS patients using noninvasive diagnostic methods.
Methods:
This study features 38 patients diagnosed with WS. In addition to physical examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography, computed tomography (CT) angiography and rest/dipyridamole stress technetium-99m sestamibi (99mTc-sestamibi) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) were performed.
Results: Twenty-one (55%) patients were male; 17 (45%) were female. The average patient age was 12 ± 5 years (2.5–26 years); the average follow-up period was 7.2 ± 4.2 years (6 months–18 years). Cardiovascular abnormalities were found in 89% of patients, the most common one being supravalvar aortic stenosis (SVAS). CT angiography revealed coronary anomalies in 10 (26%) patients, the most common ones being ectasia of the left main coronary artery and proximal right coronary artery as well as myocardial bridging. SVAS was present in 80% of patients with coronary artery anomalies. 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT MPS revealed findings possibly consistent with myocardial ischemia in 29% of patients, and ischemia in 7 out of 10 patients (70%) with coronary anomalies shown on CT angiography (p = 0.03).
Conclusions: Coronary artery abnormalities are relatively common in WS patients and are often accompanied by SVAS. CT angiography and dipyridamole 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT MPS seem to be less invasive methods of detecting coronary artery anomalies and myocardial perfusion defects in WS patients.

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