open access

Vol 14, No 2 (2007)
Original articles
Published online: 2007-03-08
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Retrospective analysis of reasons for failure of DDD pacemaker implantation in patients operated on between 1993 and 2005

Jacek Lelakowski, Jacek Majewski, Barbara Małecka, Jacek Bednarek, Paweł Stypuła, Marcin Szeglowski
Cardiol J 2007;14(2):155-159.

open access

Vol 14, No 2 (2007)
Original articles
Published online: 2007-03-08

Abstract


Background: During implantation of a DDD pacemaker the following difficulties may be encountered: venous anomalies (the absence of vessels of adequate calibre or difficulty in subclavian vein puncture), arrhythmias during implantation (episodes of atrial flutter/fibrillation while the atrial leads are being positioned), lack of mechanical stability of the electrode in the heart chamber and inability to achieve an acceptable pacing and sensing threshold during implantation. The purpose of the study was to analyse retrospectively the reasons for DDD pacemaker failure in patients operated on between 1993 and 2005.
Methods: We reviewed retrospectively all implantation data from 1988 to 2005 to identify patients with primary failure of DDD pacemaker implantation. Further analysis included patients who had received a DDD pacemaker between 1993 and 2005, when this type of pacemaker made up between 9 and 40% of all pacemaker implantations. We implanted 7469 pacemakers, including 1958 (26.2%) dual-chamber pacemakers, in 783 patients with atrioventricular block (AVB), 392 with sick sinus syndrome (SSS), 450 with AVB ± SSS and 333 with tachy-brady syndrome (TBS). The mean age of the patients was 65.5 ± 17.3 years. DDD pacing was unsuccessful in 108 (1.4%) patients, including 32 with AVB, 22 with SSS, 16 with SSS ± AVB and 38 with TBS. The mean age of these patients was 78.5 ± 19.4 years.
Results: The reasons for failed implantation were venous anomalies in 12%, an arrhythmia episode in 27.8%, a high pacing threshold in the atrium in 17.6%, low atrial potential amplitude in 25.9% and lack of mechanical stability of the electrode in 16.7% of patients. The difficulties were encountered in elderly patients (p < 0.01), most frequently in patients with SSS and TBS (71). Between 2004 and 2005 venous anomalies and a high pacing threshold were the main causes of failure.
Conclusions: Currently the main difficulties encountered during pacemaker implantation are venous anomalies and a high pacing threshold. Arrhythmia episodes, low atrial potential amplitude and lack of mechanical stability are of minor importance. Elderly patients with sick sinus syndrome and tachy-brady syndrome have the highest failure rate. (Cardiol J 2007; 14: 155-159)

Abstract


Background: During implantation of a DDD pacemaker the following difficulties may be encountered: venous anomalies (the absence of vessels of adequate calibre or difficulty in subclavian vein puncture), arrhythmias during implantation (episodes of atrial flutter/fibrillation while the atrial leads are being positioned), lack of mechanical stability of the electrode in the heart chamber and inability to achieve an acceptable pacing and sensing threshold during implantation. The purpose of the study was to analyse retrospectively the reasons for DDD pacemaker failure in patients operated on between 1993 and 2005.
Methods: We reviewed retrospectively all implantation data from 1988 to 2005 to identify patients with primary failure of DDD pacemaker implantation. Further analysis included patients who had received a DDD pacemaker between 1993 and 2005, when this type of pacemaker made up between 9 and 40% of all pacemaker implantations. We implanted 7469 pacemakers, including 1958 (26.2%) dual-chamber pacemakers, in 783 patients with atrioventricular block (AVB), 392 with sick sinus syndrome (SSS), 450 with AVB ± SSS and 333 with tachy-brady syndrome (TBS). The mean age of the patients was 65.5 ± 17.3 years. DDD pacing was unsuccessful in 108 (1.4%) patients, including 32 with AVB, 22 with SSS, 16 with SSS ± AVB and 38 with TBS. The mean age of these patients was 78.5 ± 19.4 years.
Results: The reasons for failed implantation were venous anomalies in 12%, an arrhythmia episode in 27.8%, a high pacing threshold in the atrium in 17.6%, low atrial potential amplitude in 25.9% and lack of mechanical stability of the electrode in 16.7% of patients. The difficulties were encountered in elderly patients (p < 0.01), most frequently in patients with SSS and TBS (71). Between 2004 and 2005 venous anomalies and a high pacing threshold were the main causes of failure.
Conclusions: Currently the main difficulties encountered during pacemaker implantation are venous anomalies and a high pacing threshold. Arrhythmia episodes, low atrial potential amplitude and lack of mechanical stability are of minor importance. Elderly patients with sick sinus syndrome and tachy-brady syndrome have the highest failure rate. (Cardiol J 2007; 14: 155-159)
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Keywords

arrhythmia episode; high pacing threshold; low atrial potential amplitude; lack of mechanical stability; venous anomalies; DDD pacing

About this article
Title

Retrospective analysis of reasons for failure of DDD pacemaker implantation in patients operated on between 1993 and 2005

Journal

Cardiology Journal

Issue

Vol 14, No 2 (2007)

Pages

155-159

Published online

2007-03-08

Bibliographic record

Cardiol J 2007;14(2):155-159.

Keywords

arrhythmia episode
high pacing threshold
low atrial potential amplitude
lack of mechanical stability
venous anomalies
DDD pacing

Authors

Jacek Lelakowski
Jacek Majewski
Barbara Małecka
Jacek Bednarek
Paweł Stypuła
Marcin Szeglowski

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