open access

Vol 16, No 1 (2009)
Review articles
Published online: 2008-11-28
Submitted: 2013-01-14
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Bioactivation of organic nitrates and the mechanism of nitrate tolerance

Emila Klemenska, Andrzej Beręsewicz
Cardiol J 2009;16(1):11-19.

open access

Vol 16, No 1 (2009)
Review articles
Published online: 2008-11-28
Submitted: 2013-01-14

Abstract

Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin, are commonly used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Long-term therapy with these drugs, however, results in the rapid development of nitrate tolerance, limiting their hemodynamic and anti-ischemic efficacy. In addition, nitrate tolerance is associated with the expression of potentially deleterious modifications such as increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic activation. In this review we discuss current concepts regarding the mechanisms of organic nitrate bioactivation, nitrate tolerance, and nitrate-mediated oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. We also examine how hydralazine may prevent nitrate tolerance and related endothelial dysfunction.

Abstract

Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin, are commonly used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Long-term therapy with these drugs, however, results in the rapid development of nitrate tolerance, limiting their hemodynamic and anti-ischemic efficacy. In addition, nitrate tolerance is associated with the expression of potentially deleterious modifications such as increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic activation. In this review we discuss current concepts regarding the mechanisms of organic nitrate bioactivation, nitrate tolerance, and nitrate-mediated oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. We also examine how hydralazine may prevent nitrate tolerance and related endothelial dysfunction.
Get Citation

Keywords

organic nitrates; nitrate tolerance; oxidative stress; endothelial dysfunction; hydralazine

About this article
Title

Bioactivation of organic nitrates and the mechanism of nitrate tolerance

Journal

Cardiology Journal

Issue

Vol 16, No 1 (2009)

Pages

11-19

Published online

2008-11-28

Bibliographic record

Cardiol J 2009;16(1):11-19.

Keywords

organic nitrates
nitrate tolerance
oxidative stress
endothelial dysfunction
hydralazine

Authors

Emila Klemenska
Andrzej Beręsewicz

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