open access

Vol 18, No 4 (2011)
Review articles
Published online: 2011-07-15
Submitted: 2013-01-14
Get Citation

Novel therapeutic targets for preserving a healthy endothelium: Strategies for reducing the risk of vascular and cardiovascular disease

Joseph Ramli, Pedro CalderonArtero, Robert C. Block, Shaker A. Mousa
Cardiol J 2011;18(4):352-363.

open access

Vol 18, No 4 (2011)
Review articles
Published online: 2011-07-15
Submitted: 2013-01-14

Abstract

The endothelium lies in a strategic anatomical position between the circulating blood and the vascular smooth-muscle cells. It is a source of vasodilators such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and hyperpolarizing factor as well as heparin-like substances and other molecules with antiproliferative properties. These effects of endothelial cells may explain why platelets and monocytes usually do not adhere at the blood vessel wall. However, under pathological conditions, endothelial dysfunction occurs and significantly contributes to the increase of platelet- -vessel wall interaction, vasoconstriction, pro-inflammation, and proliferation. Under these conditions, endothelium-dependent vasodilation is reduced, and endothelium-dependent constrictor responses are augmented. Upon vessel wall injury, the platelets rapidly adhere to the exposed sub-endothelial matrix, which is mediated by several cellular receptors present on platelets or endothelial cells and various adhesive proteins. Subsequent platelet activation results in the recruitment of additional platelets and the generation of platelet aggregates, so forming a stable platelet plug. Therapeutic strategies aimed at improving or preserving endothelial function therefore may be promising in terms of preventing and treating coronary artery disease. Diagnostic modalities for assessing endothelial function should allow for the early detection of vascular endothelial dysfunction before the manifestation of serious adverse vascular disorders. (Cardiol J 2011; 18, 4: 352–363)

Abstract

The endothelium lies in a strategic anatomical position between the circulating blood and the vascular smooth-muscle cells. It is a source of vasodilators such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and hyperpolarizing factor as well as heparin-like substances and other molecules with antiproliferative properties. These effects of endothelial cells may explain why platelets and monocytes usually do not adhere at the blood vessel wall. However, under pathological conditions, endothelial dysfunction occurs and significantly contributes to the increase of platelet- -vessel wall interaction, vasoconstriction, pro-inflammation, and proliferation. Under these conditions, endothelium-dependent vasodilation is reduced, and endothelium-dependent constrictor responses are augmented. Upon vessel wall injury, the platelets rapidly adhere to the exposed sub-endothelial matrix, which is mediated by several cellular receptors present on platelets or endothelial cells and various adhesive proteins. Subsequent platelet activation results in the recruitment of additional platelets and the generation of platelet aggregates, so forming a stable platelet plug. Therapeutic strategies aimed at improving or preserving endothelial function therefore may be promising in terms of preventing and treating coronary artery disease. Diagnostic modalities for assessing endothelial function should allow for the early detection of vascular endothelial dysfunction before the manifestation of serious adverse vascular disorders. (Cardiol J 2011; 18, 4: 352–363)
Get Citation

Keywords

vascular; endothelial cell; cardiovascular disorders; coronary syndrome; vasoconstriction; vasodilation; inflammation; anti-inflammation; anti-platelet; pro-platelet; anti-coagulant; pro-coagulant; diagnosis of endothelial function

About this article
Title

Novel therapeutic targets for preserving a healthy endothelium: Strategies for reducing the risk of vascular and cardiovascular disease

Journal

Cardiology Journal

Issue

Vol 18, No 4 (2011)

Pages

352-363

Published online

2011-07-15

Bibliographic record

Cardiol J 2011;18(4):352-363.

Keywords

vascular
endothelial cell
cardiovascular disorders
coronary syndrome
vasoconstriction
vasodilation
inflammation
anti-inflammation
anti-platelet
pro-platelet
anti-coagulant
pro-coagulant
diagnosis of endothelial function

Authors

Joseph Ramli
Pedro CalderonArtero
Robert C. Block
Shaker A. Mousa

Important: This website uses cookies.tanya dokter More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland
tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, fax:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl