open access

Vol 18, No 6 (2011)
Original articles
Published online: 2011-11-23
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Electrocardiography and prognosis of patients with acute pulmonary embolism

Piotr Kukla, Robert Długopolski, Ewa Krupa, Romana Furtak, Roman Szełemej, Ewa Mirek-Bryniarska, Marek Jastrzębski, Jacek Nowak, Piotr Wańczura, Leszek Bryniarski
Cardiol J 2011;18(6):648-653.

open access

Vol 18, No 6 (2011)
Original articles
Published online: 2011-11-23

Abstract

Background: To assess the influence of electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern on prognosis and complications of patients hospitalized with acute pulmonary embolism (APE).
Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 292 patients who had confirmed APE. There were 183 females and 109 males, the age range was 17 to 89 years, and the mean age was 65.4 ± 15.5 years.
Results: In our study group, there were 33 deaths (mortality rate, 11.3%), and 73 (25%) patients developed complications during hospitalization. Based on European Society of Cardiology risk stratification, we classified 75 (25.7%) patients as high risk, 163 (55.8%) patients as intermediate risk, and 54 (18.5%) patients as low risk. A comparison between patients with complicated APE and those with no complications during hospitalization indicated that the following ECG parameters were more common in patients who had complications: atrial fibrillation, S1Q3T3 sign, negative T waves in leads V2–V4, ST segment depression in leads V4–V6, ST segment elevation in leads III, V1 and aVR, qR in lead V1, complete right bundle branch block (RBBB), greater number of leads with negative T waves, and greater sum of the amplitude of negative T waves. In multivariate analysis, the sum of negative T waves (OR 0.88; p = 0.22), number of leads with negative T waves (OR 1.46; p = 0.001), RBBB (OR 2.87; p = 0.02) and ST segment elevation in leads V1 (OR 3.99; p = 0.00017) and aVR (OR 2.49; p = 0.011) were independent predictors of complications during hospitalization. In turn, in multivariate analysis, only the sum of negative T waves (OR 0.81; p = 0.0098), number of leads with negative T waves [OR 1.68; p = 0.00068] and ST segment elevation in lead V1 (OR 4.47; p = 0.0003) were independent predictors of death during hospitalization.
Conclusions: In our population of APE patients, the sum of negative T waves, the number of leads with negative T waves and the ST segment elevation in lead V1 were independent predictors of death during hospitalization. In turn, the sum of negative T waves, the number of leads with negative T waves, and RBBB and ST segment elevation in leads V1 and aVR were independent predictors of complications during hospitalization. We conclude that ECG analysis may be a useful noninvasive method for risk stratification of patients with APE. (Cardiol J 2011; 18, 6: 648–653)

Abstract

Background: To assess the influence of electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern on prognosis and complications of patients hospitalized with acute pulmonary embolism (APE).
Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 292 patients who had confirmed APE. There were 183 females and 109 males, the age range was 17 to 89 years, and the mean age was 65.4 ± 15.5 years.
Results: In our study group, there were 33 deaths (mortality rate, 11.3%), and 73 (25%) patients developed complications during hospitalization. Based on European Society of Cardiology risk stratification, we classified 75 (25.7%) patients as high risk, 163 (55.8%) patients as intermediate risk, and 54 (18.5%) patients as low risk. A comparison between patients with complicated APE and those with no complications during hospitalization indicated that the following ECG parameters were more common in patients who had complications: atrial fibrillation, S1Q3T3 sign, negative T waves in leads V2–V4, ST segment depression in leads V4–V6, ST segment elevation in leads III, V1 and aVR, qR in lead V1, complete right bundle branch block (RBBB), greater number of leads with negative T waves, and greater sum of the amplitude of negative T waves. In multivariate analysis, the sum of negative T waves (OR 0.88; p = 0.22), number of leads with negative T waves (OR 1.46; p = 0.001), RBBB (OR 2.87; p = 0.02) and ST segment elevation in leads V1 (OR 3.99; p = 0.00017) and aVR (OR 2.49; p = 0.011) were independent predictors of complications during hospitalization. In turn, in multivariate analysis, only the sum of negative T waves (OR 0.81; p = 0.0098), number of leads with negative T waves [OR 1.68; p = 0.00068] and ST segment elevation in lead V1 (OR 4.47; p = 0.0003) were independent predictors of death during hospitalization.
Conclusions: In our population of APE patients, the sum of negative T waves, the number of leads with negative T waves and the ST segment elevation in lead V1 were independent predictors of death during hospitalization. In turn, the sum of negative T waves, the number of leads with negative T waves, and RBBB and ST segment elevation in leads V1 and aVR were independent predictors of complications during hospitalization. We conclude that ECG analysis may be a useful noninvasive method for risk stratification of patients with APE. (Cardiol J 2011; 18, 6: 648–653)
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Keywords

acute pulmonary embolism; electrocardiogram; mortality; complications

About this article
Title

Electrocardiography and prognosis of patients with acute pulmonary embolism

Journal

Cardiology Journal

Issue

Vol 18, No 6 (2011)

Pages

648-653

Published online

2011-11-23

Bibliographic record

Cardiol J 2011;18(6):648-653.

Keywords

acute pulmonary embolism
electrocardiogram
mortality
complications

Authors

Piotr Kukla
Robert Długopolski
Ewa Krupa
Romana Furtak
Roman Szełemej
Ewa Mirek-Bryniarska
Marek Jastrzębski
Jacek Nowak
Piotr Wańczura
Leszek Bryniarski

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