Vol 53, No 5 (2022)
Original research article
Published online: 2022-10-31

open access

Page views 623
Article views/downloads 199
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Use of convalescent plasma in patients with COVID-19

Katarzyna Gągola1, Jan Styczyński2
Acta Haematol Pol 2022;53(5):335-344.


Introducton: We wished to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of convalescent plasma (CP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients treated in hospitals in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, including the impact of treatment duration and CP antibody titer on the course of hospitalization and patient survival in relation to other risk factors.

Material and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of clinical data of CP use in hospitals in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship.

Results: A total of 3,596 patients had available clinical data. In 59% of patients, CP was administered during the initial 24 hours of hospitalization (median: 1 day, range 1–49). In cured patients, hospital length of stay correlated with time of CP administration (p <0.001), i.e. the sooner the COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) was administered, the shorter the hospitalization. Overall survival in analyzed COVID-19 patients was 78.3%, and it was better when CP was administered during the first day of hospitalization (79.9% vs. 86.8%, p = 0.057), in younger patients (91.0% vs. 76.2% for patients <50 years and older, respectively; p <0.001); in patients not requiring invasive ventilation (78.7% vs. 26.9%, p <0.001), in good performance status patients (92.5% vs. 81.0% and 68.6% in patients in moderate and poor performance status, respectively; p <0.001); and in patients without comorbidities (88.6% vs. 75.9%, p <0.001). In turn, blood group and titers of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in CP had no impact on survival. In multivariate analysis, the following factors increased the risk of death from COVID-19: general clinical status at admission (poor > moderate > good), comorbidities, mechanical ventilation required. Risk of death was decreased in younger patients (continuous variable), while administration of CP within the first day of hospitalization had borderline significance (p = 0.077). The use of CP was a safe therapeutic approach. Mild reactions were reported after just 5/9,356 (0.05%) transfusions.

Conclusions: The early administration of CP had a beneficial effect on the clinical course of treatment in COVID-19 patients.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. van Griensven J, Edwards T, Baize S, et al. Ebola-Tx Consortium. Efficacy of convalescent plasma in virelation to dose of Ebola rus antibodies. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(23): 2307–2309.
  2. Wong VWS, Dai D, Wu AKL, et al. Treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome with convalescent plasma. Hong Kong Med J. 2003; 9(3): 199–201.
  3. Who Mers-Cov Research Group. State of knowledge and data gaps of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in humans. PLoS Curr. 2013; 5.
  4. Hung IFn, To KKw, Lee CK, et al. Convalescent plasma treatment reduced mortality in patients with severe pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52(4): 447–456.
  5. Styczyński J. Hematology and transfusion medicine facing COVID-19: perspectives beyond the pandemic. Acta Haematol Pol. 2020; 51(2): 58–59.
  6. Gągola K. Use of convalescent plasma in patients with COVID-19. Acta Haematol Pol. 2022; 53(5): 335–335.
  7. Dougan M, Nirula A, Azizad M, et al. BLAZE-1 Investigators. Bamlanivimab plus etesevimab in mild or moderate Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021; 385(15): 1382–1392.
  8. Gottlieb RL, Nirula A, Chen P, et al. Effect of bamlanivimab as monotherapy or in combination with etesevimab on viral load in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021; 325(7): 632–644.
  9. Dong Y, Mo Xi, Hu Y, et al. Epidemiology of COVID-19 among children in China. Pediatrics. 2020; 145(6).
  10. RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Convalescent plasma in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised controlled, open-label, platform trial. Lancet. 2021; 397(10289): 2049–2059.
  11. Janiaud P, Axfors C, Schmitt AM, et al. Association of convalescent plasma treatment with clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2021; 325(12): 1185–1195.
  12. Salazar E, Christensen PA, Graviss EA, et al. Treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 patients with convalescent plasma reveals a signal of significantly decreased mortality. Am J Pathol. 2020; 190(11): 2290–2303.
  13. Joyner MJ, Carter RE, Senefeld JW, et al. Convalescent plasma antibody levels and the risk of death from COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2021; 384(11): 1015–1027.
  14. Libster R, Pérez Marc G, Wappner D, et al. Fundación INFANT–COVID-19 Group. Early high-titer plasma therapy to prevent severe COVID-19 in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2021; 384(7): 610–618.
  15. Korley FK, Durkalski-Mauldin V, Yeatts SD, et al. SIREN-C3PO Investigators. Early convalescent plasma for high-risk outpatients with COVID-19. N Engl J Med. 2021; 385(21): 1951–1960.
  16. Simonovich VA, Burgos Pratx LD, Scibona P, et al. PlasmAr Study Group. A randomized trial of convalescent plasma in COVID-19 severe pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2021; 384(7): 619–629.
  17. Korley FK, Durkalski-Mauldin V, Callaway CW. Convalescent plasma for outpatients with COVID-19. Reply. N Engl J Med. 2021; 385(23): 2206–2207.
  18. Hueso T, Pouderoux C, Péré H, et al. Convalescent plasma therapy for B-cell-depleted patients with protracted COVID-19. Blood. 2020; 136(20): 2290–2295.
  19. Betrains A, Godinas L, Woei-A-Jin FJ, et al. Convalescent plasma treatment of persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in patients with lymphoma with impaired humoral immunity and lack of neutralising antibodies. Br J Haematol. 2021; 192(6): 1100–1105.
  20. Thompson MA, Henderson JP, Shah PK, et al. COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium. Use of convalescent plasma in COVID-19 patients with immunosuppression. Transfusion. 2021; 61(8): 2503–2511.
  21. Senefeld JW, Klassen SA, Ford SK, et al. Use of convalescent plasma in COVID-19 patients with immunosuppression. Transfusion. 2021; 61(8): 2503–2511.
  22. Cohn CS, Estcourt L, Grossman BJ, et al. COVID-19 convalescent plasma: interim recommendations from the AABB. Transfusion. 2021; 61(4): 1313–1323.