open access

Vol 48, No 4 (2017)
Prace poglądowe / Reviews
Published online: 2017-10-01
Submitted: 2017-02-13
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Genetic aberrations in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their clinical and therapeutic significance

Magdalena Romiszewska, Iwona Malinowska1
DOI: 10.1016/j.achaem.2017.06.003
·
Acta Haematol Pol 2017;48(4):300-307.
Affiliations
  1. Katedra i Klinika Pediatrii, Hematologii i Onkologii Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego, Kierownik Kliniki: Prof. dr hab. n. med. Michał Matysiak, Warszawa, Polska

open access

Vol 48, No 4 (2017)
Prace poglądowe / Reviews
Published online: 2017-10-01
Submitted: 2017-02-13

Abstract

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common paediatric malignancy. Despite the fact that the outcome of treatment of ALL in children has improved in the last decades, still as many as 20% of children will undergo treatment failure. Over the last years, there have been great efforts to characterize the genetic alterations of leukaemic cells, which could affect the clinical course of the disease and become new markers that may be targeted with novel therapies. Genomic profiling and sequencing studies have not only identified new subtypes of ALL (e.g. Philadelphia chromosome-like ALL, early T-cell precursor ALL) but also helped to understand the genetic basis of leukaemogenesis and predict treatment failure. Those efforts contributed not only to better risk stratification of children with ALL, but also to development of new tailored therapeutic strategies. So far, improvements in survival of children with Ph+ ALL (Philadelphia positive ALL) have been demonstrated due to combination of intensive chemotherapy with tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor (imatinib). There are also some pre- and clinical testing of other inhibitors (TK, FLT3, PI3K/mTOR, MEK) and specific antibodies (CD19 and CD22). Widespread use of modern diagnostic techniques at the early stage of the disease would enable rapid identification of children with a high-risk leukaemia and use of more intensive and tailored therapy.

Abstract

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common paediatric malignancy. Despite the fact that the outcome of treatment of ALL in children has improved in the last decades, still as many as 20% of children will undergo treatment failure. Over the last years, there have been great efforts to characterize the genetic alterations of leukaemic cells, which could affect the clinical course of the disease and become new markers that may be targeted with novel therapies. Genomic profiling and sequencing studies have not only identified new subtypes of ALL (e.g. Philadelphia chromosome-like ALL, early T-cell precursor ALL) but also helped to understand the genetic basis of leukaemogenesis and predict treatment failure. Those efforts contributed not only to better risk stratification of children with ALL, but also to development of new tailored therapeutic strategies. So far, improvements in survival of children with Ph+ ALL (Philadelphia positive ALL) have been demonstrated due to combination of intensive chemotherapy with tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor (imatinib). There are also some pre- and clinical testing of other inhibitors (TK, FLT3, PI3K/mTOR, MEK) and specific antibodies (CD19 and CD22). Widespread use of modern diagnostic techniques at the early stage of the disease would enable rapid identification of children with a high-risk leukaemia and use of more intensive and tailored therapy.

Get Citation

Keywords

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; ALL in children; Genetic aberrations; Targeted therapy

About this article
Title

Genetic aberrations in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their clinical and therapeutic significance

Journal

Acta Haematologica Polonica

Issue

Vol 48, No 4 (2017)

Pages

300-307

Published online

2017-10-01

DOI

10.1016/j.achaem.2017.06.003

Bibliographic record

Acta Haematol Pol 2017;48(4):300-307.

Keywords

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
ALL in children
Genetic aberrations
Targeted therapy

Authors

Magdalena Romiszewska
Iwona Malinowska

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