open access

Vol 51, No 4 (2020)
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Published online: 2020-12-01
Submitted: 2020-01-23
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Iron deficiency anemia – new possibilities of iron supplementation in various clinical conditions

Sylwia Sulimiera Michalak
DOI: 10.2478/ahp-2020-0037
·
Acta Haematol Pol 2020;51(4):212-219.

open access

Vol 51, No 4 (2020)
Untitled
Published online: 2020-12-01
Submitted: 2020-01-23

Abstract

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) treatment is done to eliminate the causes of iron deficiency, iron supplementation, and rarely red blood cell transfusion. Divalent iron salts are the first line of oral treatment, but their use lead to frequent gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Iron is administered intravenously in the event of contraindications, intolerance, or inefficiency of oral therapy, but the parenteral route of drug delivery is not easily accepted by the patients. Intravenous preparations for single administration of a large dose of iron have a good therapy safety profile, but are more expensive than oral and are usually administered in a hospital setting. The availability of new iron compounds: sucrosomial iron, ferric citrate complexes, and ferric maltol widen the possibilities of IDA therapy and enable the better selection of iron preparations in various clinical situations. The innovative structure of sucrosomial iron leads to absorption in different ways (through endocytosis, the paracellular pathway, M cells of Peyer's patches), ensures high bioavailability, and good tolerance of therapy. Ferric citrate, in addition to iron supplementation, reduces phosphate levels, and is beneficial to chronic kidney disease. Ferric maltol is currently being studied for IDA treatment with various comorbidities. Some studies indicate that new iron formulas may be used where intravenous intake has been recommended so far. So, we can expect treatment with iron nanoparticles and drugs that affect the intestinal microflora in the future. The paper presents current knowledge about new iron preparations that are already available in everyday practice, but also those that are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical studies.

Abstract

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) treatment is done to eliminate the causes of iron deficiency, iron supplementation, and rarely red blood cell transfusion. Divalent iron salts are the first line of oral treatment, but their use lead to frequent gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Iron is administered intravenously in the event of contraindications, intolerance, or inefficiency of oral therapy, but the parenteral route of drug delivery is not easily accepted by the patients. Intravenous preparations for single administration of a large dose of iron have a good therapy safety profile, but are more expensive than oral and are usually administered in a hospital setting. The availability of new iron compounds: sucrosomial iron, ferric citrate complexes, and ferric maltol widen the possibilities of IDA therapy and enable the better selection of iron preparations in various clinical situations. The innovative structure of sucrosomial iron leads to absorption in different ways (through endocytosis, the paracellular pathway, M cells of Peyer's patches), ensures high bioavailability, and good tolerance of therapy. Ferric citrate, in addition to iron supplementation, reduces phosphate levels, and is beneficial to chronic kidney disease. Ferric maltol is currently being studied for IDA treatment with various comorbidities. Some studies indicate that new iron formulas may be used where intravenous intake has been recommended so far. So, we can expect treatment with iron nanoparticles and drugs that affect the intestinal microflora in the future. The paper presents current knowledge about new iron preparations that are already available in everyday practice, but also those that are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical studies.

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Keywords

iron deficiency anemia; sucrosomial iron; iron maltol; iron citrate; iron nanocompounds

About this article
Title

Iron deficiency anemia – new possibilities of iron supplementation in various clinical conditions

Journal

Acta Haematologica Polonica

Issue

Vol 51, No 4 (2020)

Pages

212-219

Published online

2020-12-01

DOI

10.2478/ahp-2020-0037

Bibliographic record

Acta Haematol Pol 2020;51(4):212-219.

Keywords

iron deficiency anemia
sucrosomial iron
iron maltol
iron citrate
iron nanocompounds

Authors

Sylwia Sulimiera Michalak

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