Vol 51, No 2 (2020)
Experts’ Guidelines
Published online: 2020-06-01

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Antifungal management in adults and children with hematological malignancies or undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation: recommendations of Polish Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Polish Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, and Polish Adult Leukemia Study Group, 2020

Lidia Gil1, Krzysztof Kałwak2, Agnieszka Piekarska3, Joanna Góra-Tybor4, Agnieszka Wierzbowska4, Maria Bieniaszewska3, Iwona Hus5, Tomasz Szczepański6, Sebastian Giebel7, Ewa Lech-Marańda5, Jan Styczyński8
DOI: 10.2478/ahp-2020-0014
Acta Haematol Pol 2020;51(2):60-72.


Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is one of the most serious complications of therapy in patients with immune suppression. It particularly concerns patients treated for malignant hematological diseases, immune deficiencies, or undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Development of IFD can abrogate the effect of previous therapy and contributes to dismal outcome of the underlying disease. The Working Group consisting of members of the Polish Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, the Polish Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, and the Polish Adult Leukemia Study Group has prepared recommendations for the diagnostic and therapeutic management of IFD in adults and children. This paper presents the current recommendations for patients in immune suppression treated in Polish pediatric and adult hematology and HCT centers, based on the guidelines of the European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL) 2015–2019. Levels of diagnosis of IFD (possible, probable, and proven) and antifungal management (prophylaxis, as well as empirical and targeted therapies) are declared according to updated international criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) 2019. Patients with primary diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, severe aplastic anemia, chronic granulomatous disease, and severe combined immunodeficiency, as well as patients after allogeneic HCT, are included in the high-risk groups for development of IFD. For these patients, antifungal prophylaxis based on azoles or micafungin is recommended. In empirical therapy, caspofungin or liposomal/lipid formulas of amphotericin B are recommended. The Working Group has discouraged the use of itraconazole in capsules and amphotericin deoxycholate. Detailed guidelines for first- and second-line targeted therapies for invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis, fusariosis, and scedosporiosis, as well as the principles of the recommended dosing of antifungals, are presented in this paper.

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