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Vol 25, No 1 (2019)
Published online: 2019-03-12

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The review of selected biomarkers of abdominal aortic aneurysm

Stanisław Surma1, Marta Lesiak1, Beata Dorzak2, Grzegorz Bajor2
Acta Angiologica 2019;25(1):19-27.


Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a disease affecting the main artery transporting oxidized blood to the
abdominal and pelvic organs. Abdominal aortic aneurysms occur 4-8 times more often in men than in women,
usually develop after the age of 55. Among men over 65, 4–7.6%, this diagnosis can be expected. More aneurysms
occur in Caucasian people. Among the most frequently mentioned in the literature, AAA risk factors are
older age, male gender, positive family history, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension,
hypercholesterolemia, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, ischemic heart disease. Biochemical tests to determine
the level of AAA-specific markers appear with potential. There are reports in the literature on the possible
use of concentrations of selected molecules in the diagnosis of AAA. According to cadaveric research, there are
noticed dimensions of the abdominal aorta at its different levels. The relation between aortic size and shape
can be the factor contributing to the development of AAA. Previous studies have shown that the development
of AAA is a crucial fundamental inflammatory response in conjunction with proteolysis tissue, which causes the
destruction and reconstruction of the blood vessel wall. Numerous factors contribute to the pathogenesis of
AAA: proteins, transcription factors, enzymes and microRNAs. The increase in the concentration of most factors
is associated with inflammation. The biomarkers presented in the paper are not limited to AAA, and thus can
be used only for visual assessment of the degree of abdominal aortic aneurysm development.

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