open access

Vol 23, No 3 (2018)
Published online: 2018-05-01
Submitted: 2017-09-11
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4D modeling in a gimbaled linear accelerator by using gold anchor markers

Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa, Takaaki Matsuura, Atsushi Kawakubo, Fumika Hosono, Kiyoshi Yamada, Yasushi Nagata
DOI: 10.1016/j.rpor.2018.02.008
·
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2018;23(3):183-188.

open access

Vol 23, No 3 (2018)
Published online: 2018-05-01
Submitted: 2017-09-11

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to verify whether the dynamic tumor tracking (DTT) feature of a Vero4DRT system performs with 10-mm-long and 0.28[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]mm diameter gold anchor markers.

Methods

Gold anchor markers with a length of 10[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]mm and a diameter of 0.28[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]mm were used. Gold anchor markers were injected with short and long types into bolus material. These markers were sandwiched by a Tough Water (TW) phantom in the bolus material. For the investigation of 4-dimensional (4D) modeling feasibility under various phantom thicknesses, the TW phantom was added at 2[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]cm intervals (in upper and lower each by 1[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]cm). A programmable respiratory motion table was used to simulate breathing-induced organ motion, with an amplitude of 30[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]mm and a breathing cycle of 3[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]s. X-ray imaging parameters of 80[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]kV and 125[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]kV (320[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]mA and 5[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]ms) were used. The least detection error of the fiducial marker was defined as the 4D-modeling limitation.

Results

The 4D modeling process was attempted using short and long marker types and its limitation with the short and long types was with phantom thicknesses of 6 and 10[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]cm at 80[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]kV and 125[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]kV, respectively. However, the loss in detectability of the gold anchor because of 4D-modeling errors was found to be approximately 6% (2/31) with a phantom thickness of 2[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]cm under 125[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]kV. 4D-modeling could be performed except under the described conditions.

Conclusions

This work showed that a 10-mm-long gold anchor marker in short and long types can be used with DTT for short water equivalent path length site, such as lung cancer patients, in the Vero4DRT system.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to verify whether the dynamic tumor tracking (DTT) feature of a Vero4DRT system performs with 10-mm-long and 0.28[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]mm diameter gold anchor markers.

Methods

Gold anchor markers with a length of 10[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]mm and a diameter of 0.28[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]mm were used. Gold anchor markers were injected with short and long types into bolus material. These markers were sandwiched by a Tough Water (TW) phantom in the bolus material. For the investigation of 4-dimensional (4D) modeling feasibility under various phantom thicknesses, the TW phantom was added at 2[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]cm intervals (in upper and lower each by 1[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]cm). A programmable respiratory motion table was used to simulate breathing-induced organ motion, with an amplitude of 30[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]mm and a breathing cycle of 3[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]s. X-ray imaging parameters of 80[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]kV and 125[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]kV (320[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]mA and 5[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]ms) were used. The least detection error of the fiducial marker was defined as the 4D-modeling limitation.

Results

The 4D modeling process was attempted using short and long marker types and its limitation with the short and long types was with phantom thicknesses of 6 and 10[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]cm at 80[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]kV and 125[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]kV, respectively. However, the loss in detectability of the gold anchor because of 4D-modeling errors was found to be approximately 6% (2/31) with a phantom thickness of 2[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]cm under 125[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]kV. 4D-modeling could be performed except under the described conditions.

Conclusions

This work showed that a 10-mm-long gold anchor marker in short and long types can be used with DTT for short water equivalent path length site, such as lung cancer patients, in the Vero4DRT system.

Get Citation

Keywords

4D-modeling; Gold anchor marker; IGRT; Image quality; Vero4DRT

About this article
Title

4D modeling in a gimbaled linear accelerator by using gold anchor markers

Journal

Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy

Issue

Vol 23, No 3 (2018)

Pages

183-188

Published online

2018-05-01

DOI

10.1016/j.rpor.2018.02.008

Bibliographic record

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2018;23(3):183-188.

Keywords

4D-modeling
Gold anchor marker
IGRT
Image quality
Vero4DRT

Authors

Hideharu Miura
Shuichi Ozawa
Takaaki Matsuura
Atsushi Kawakubo
Fumika Hosono
Kiyoshi Yamada
Yasushi Nagata

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