open access

Vol 16, No 6 (2011)
Published online: 2011-11-01
Submitted: 2011-01-07
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Bystander effects induced by direct and scattered radiation generated during penetration of medium inside a water phantom

Maria Konopacka, Jacek Rogoliński, Krzysztof Ślosarek
DOI: 10.1016/j.rpor.2011.10.001
·
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2011;16(6):256-261.

open access

Vol 16, No 6 (2011)
Published online: 2011-11-01
Submitted: 2011-01-07

Abstract

Background

The biological effects of ionizing radiation have long been thought to results from direct targeting of the nucleus leading to DNA damage. Over the years, a number of non-targeted or epigenetic effects of radiation exposure have been reported where genetic damage occurs in cells that are not directly irradiated but respond to signals transmitted from irradiated cells, a phenomenon termed the “bystander effects”.

Aim

We compared the direct and bystander responses of human A 549, BEAS-2-B and NHDF cell lines exposed to both photon (6[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]MV) and electron (22[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]MeV) radiation inside a water phantom. The cultures were directly irradiated or exposed to scattered radiation 4[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]cm outside the field. In parallel, non-irradiated cells (termed bystander cells) were incubated in ICM (irradiation conditioned medium) collected from another pool of irradiated cells (termed donor cells).

Materials and methods

In directly irradiated cells as well as ICM-treated cells, the frequency of micronuclei and condensation of chromatin characteristic for the apoptotic process were estimated using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test.

Results

In all tested cell lines, radiation induced apoptosis and formation of micronuclei. A549 and BEAS-2B cells cultured in ICM showed increased levels of micronuclei and apoptosis, whereas normal human fibroblasts (NHDF line) were resistant to bystander response. In A549 and BEAS-2B cells placed outside the radiation field and exposed to scattered radiation the formation of micronuclei and induction of apoptosis were similar to that after ICM-treatment.

Conclusion

Results suggest that the genetic damage in cells exposed to scattered radiation is caused by factors released by irradiated cells into the medium rather than by DNA damage induced directly by X rays. It seems that bystander effects may have important clinical implications for health risk after low level radiation exposure of cells lying outside the radiation field during clinical treatment.

Abstract

Background

The biological effects of ionizing radiation have long been thought to results from direct targeting of the nucleus leading to DNA damage. Over the years, a number of non-targeted or epigenetic effects of radiation exposure have been reported where genetic damage occurs in cells that are not directly irradiated but respond to signals transmitted from irradiated cells, a phenomenon termed the “bystander effects”.

Aim

We compared the direct and bystander responses of human A 549, BEAS-2-B and NHDF cell lines exposed to both photon (6[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]MV) and electron (22[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]MeV) radiation inside a water phantom. The cultures were directly irradiated or exposed to scattered radiation 4[[ce:hsp sp="0.25"/]]cm outside the field. In parallel, non-irradiated cells (termed bystander cells) were incubated in ICM (irradiation conditioned medium) collected from another pool of irradiated cells (termed donor cells).

Materials and methods

In directly irradiated cells as well as ICM-treated cells, the frequency of micronuclei and condensation of chromatin characteristic for the apoptotic process were estimated using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test.

Results

In all tested cell lines, radiation induced apoptosis and formation of micronuclei. A549 and BEAS-2B cells cultured in ICM showed increased levels of micronuclei and apoptosis, whereas normal human fibroblasts (NHDF line) were resistant to bystander response. In A549 and BEAS-2B cells placed outside the radiation field and exposed to scattered radiation the formation of micronuclei and induction of apoptosis were similar to that after ICM-treatment.

Conclusion

Results suggest that the genetic damage in cells exposed to scattered radiation is caused by factors released by irradiated cells into the medium rather than by DNA damage induced directly by X rays. It seems that bystander effects may have important clinical implications for health risk after low level radiation exposure of cells lying outside the radiation field during clinical treatment.

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Keywords

X-irradiation; Apoptosis; Micronuclei; Bystander effect; Scattered radiation

About this article
Title

Bystander effects induced by direct and scattered radiation generated during penetration of medium inside a water phantom

Journal

Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy

Issue

Vol 16, No 6 (2011)

Pages

256-261

Published online

2011-11-01

DOI

10.1016/j.rpor.2011.10.001

Bibliographic record

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2011;16(6):256-261.

Keywords

X-irradiation
Apoptosis
Micronuclei
Bystander effect
Scattered radiation

Authors

Maria Konopacka
Jacek Rogoliński
Krzysztof Ślosarek

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