open access

Vol 16, No 6 (2020)
Guidelines / Expert consensus
Published online: 2021-01-12
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Carcinoma of the anal canal and anal margin

Joanna Socha12, Krzysztof Bujko3
DOI: 10.5603/OCP.2020.0036
Oncol Clin Pract 2020;16(6):331-337.
  1. Department of Radiotherapy, Military Institute Of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Department of Radiotherapy, Częstochowa Oncology Center, Częstochowa, Poland
  3. Department of Radiotherapy, Maria Skłodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland

open access

Vol 16, No 6 (2020)
Published online: 2021-01-12





Get Citation


anal canal carcinoma; anal margin carcinoma; diagnosis; treatment; follow-up; recommendations

About this article

Carcinoma of the anal canal and anal margin


Oncology in Clinical Practice


Vol 16, No 6 (2020)

Article type

Guidelines / Expert consensus



Published online


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Bibliographic record

Oncol Clin Pract 2020;16(6):331-337.


anal canal carcinoma
anal margin carcinoma


Joanna Socha
Krzysztof Bujko

References (16)
  1. Wojciechowska U, Didkowska J. Zachorowania i zgony na nowotwory złośliwe w Polsce. Krajowy Rejestr Nowotworów, Narodowy Instytut Onkologii im. Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy. Dostępne na stronie dostęp z dnia 19.04.2020r.
  2. Amin BA, Edge SB. AJCC cancer staging manual. 8th ed. Springer, New York 2017.
  3. Benson AlB, Venook AP, Al-Hawary MM, et al. Anal Carcinoma, Version 2.2018, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2018; 16(7): 852–871.
  4. Myerson RJ, Garofalo MC, El Naqa I, et al. Elective clinical target volumes for conformal therapy in anorectal cancer: a radiation therapy oncology group consensus panel contouring atlas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009; 74(3): 824–830.
  5. Ng M, Leong T, Chander S, et al. Australasian Gastrointestinal Trials Group (AGITG) contouring atlas and planning guidelines for intensity-modulated radiotherapy in anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012; 83(5): 1455–1462.
  6. Taylor A, Rockall AG, Reznek RH, et al. Mapping pelvic lymph nodes: guidelines for delineation in intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005; 63(5): 1604–1612.
  7. Kachnic LA, Winter K, Myerson RJ, et al. RTOG 0529: a phase 2 evaluation of dose-painted intensity modulated radiation therapy in combination with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C for the reduction of acute morbidity in carcinoma of the anal canal. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013; 86(1): 27–33.
  8. Rivin Del Campo E, Matzinger O, Haustermans K, et al. Pooled Analysis of external-beam RADiotherapy parameters in phase II and phase III trials in radiochemotherapy in Anal Cancer (PARADAC). Eur J Cancer. 2019; 121: 130–143.
  9. Peiffert D, Tournier-Rangeard L, Gérard JP, et al. Induction chemotherapy and dose intensification of the radiation boost in locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: final analysis of the randomized UNICANCER ACCORD 03 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30(16): 1941–1948.
  10. James RD, Glynne-Jones R, Meadows HM, et al. Mitomycin or cisplatin chemoradiation with or without maintenance chemotherapy for treatment of squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus (ACT II): a randomised, phase 3, open-label, 2 × 2 factorial trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14(6): 516–524.
  11. Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL, et al. Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008; 299(16): 1914–1921.
  12. Bartelink H, Roelofsen F, Eschwege F, et al. Concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is superior to radiotherapy alone in the treatment of locally advanced anal cancer: results of a phase III randomized trial of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Radiotherapy and Gastrointestinal Cooperative Groups. J Clin Oncol. 1997; 15(5): 2040–2049.
  13. Flam M, John M, Pajak TF, et al. Role of mitomycin in combination with fluorouracil and radiotherapy, and of salvage chemoradiation in the definitive nonsurgical treatment of epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal: results of a phase III randomized intergroup study. J Clin Oncol. 1996; 14(9): 2527–2539.
  14. White EC, Goldman K, Aleshin A, et al. Chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: Comparison of one versus two cycles mitomycin-C. Radiother Oncol. 2015; 117(2): 240–245.
  15. Glynne-Jones R, Sebag-Montefiore D, Meadows HM, et al. ACT II study group. Best time to assess complete clinical response after chemoradiotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (ACT II): a post-hoc analysis of randomised controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017; 18(3): 347–356.
  16. Holliday EB, Lester SC, Harmsen WS, et al. Extended-Field chemoradiation therapy for definitive treatment of anal canal squamous cell carcinoma involving the para-aortic lymph nodes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018; 102(1): 102–108.


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