Vol 17, No 6 (2021)
Review paper
Published online: 2021-04-20

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Causes of BIA-ALCL: a summary of the current state of knowledge

Agnieszka Ławnicka1, Sławomir Cieśla1, Piotr Pluta2, Aleksandra Przybylska3, Dawid Murawa14
Oncol Clin Pract 2021;17(6):285-290.


The reasons for the development of breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) have recently been quite a popular topic. The main interest is among plastic surgeons, surgical oncologists, hematologists, and oncologists. Over the past decade, numerous scientific papers on this subject have been published. Potential etiopathogenetic factors include the type of implants, biofilm, inflammation, microtrauma, and genetic mutations. None of the above potential causes have been adequately proven by scientific evidence; anyway, they should not be considered separately, as they are likely to coexist. Further research and exchange of experience among doctors and scientists are necessary to determine the leading etiopathogenetic factor. Its emergence would contribute to the rise of the possibility of using effective preventive measures in patients undergoing breast implant surgery and perhaps even eliminating BIA-ALCL.

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