open access

Vol 21, No 2 (2018)
Original articles
Published online: 2018-07-31
Submitted: 2018-07-18
Accepted: 2018-07-18
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Application of normalized values of kidney clearance function in the diagnosis of bilateral obstructive nephropathy — a preliminary report

Paweł Cichocki, Krzysztof Filipczak, Marian Surma, Anna Płachcińska, Jacek Kuśmierek
DOI: 10.5603/NMR.a2018.0021
·
Pubmed: 30070348
·
Nucl. Med. Rev 2018;21(2):92-95.

open access

Vol 21, No 2 (2018)
Original articles
Published online: 2018-07-31
Submitted: 2018-07-18
Accepted: 2018-07-18

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Dynamic renal scintigraphy provides effective diagnosis of obstructive uropathy and nephropathy. However, in case of a bilateral outflow impairment, relative differential renal function (DRF), which is a primary quantitative criterion for diagnosis of unilateral obstructive nephropathy (when its value is below 45%, according to EANM guidelines from 2011), becomes unreliable. In case of bilateral nephropathy with similar severity, this parameter may even be within the normal range (45–55%) for both kidneys. The aim of this study was therefore to assess diagnostic usefulness of the original, normalized, absolute parameter proportional to the value of renal clearance function (K) in the evaluation of obstructive nephropathy in a group of patients with bilateral uropathy.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (32 kidneys) without history of kidney diseases were examined to determine normative value of K index. Then, 8 patients (16 kidneys) with bilateral obstructive uropathy found in standard dynamic renal scintigraphy performed using 111 MBq of 99mTc-EC (cumulative renographic curve that continued rising or dropped by less than 50% after i.v. administration of Furosemide) were examined. For each of the subjects 60 sequential 20s images were obtained, which were then assessed using an original method of post-processing scintigraphic data. It included normalization of renographic curves to the area under the heart curve. Subsequently, these normalized values from the uptake phase (between 2nd and 3rd minute) were inserted into the linear regression equation, from which K index was obtained.

RESULTS: In healthy volunteers the average value of K index was 0.23 ± 0.05. The value of 0.13 (mean –2 SD) was taken as the lower limit of the norm. Values below that limit suggest obstructive nephropathy. In patients with bilateral obstructive uropathy, 5 kidneys met the conventional criteria of nephropathy (DRF < 45%), while 11 kidneys had DRF within normal range. K index was below the norm in 9 kidneys (including 4 kidneys with low and 5 with normal DRF), while its value was normal in 7, including one kidney with reduced DRF (37%). K index changed the diagnosis in 6 kidneys out of 16 (38%).

CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results indicate usefulness of K index in diagnosis of obstructive nephropathy in patients with bilateral obstructive uropathy. For further evaluation of clinical value of this method, it is planned to examine a larger group of patients with varying degrees of renal parenchymal function impairments.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Dynamic renal scintigraphy provides effective diagnosis of obstructive uropathy and nephropathy. However, in case of a bilateral outflow impairment, relative differential renal function (DRF), which is a primary quantitative criterion for diagnosis of unilateral obstructive nephropathy (when its value is below 45%, according to EANM guidelines from 2011), becomes unreliable. In case of bilateral nephropathy with similar severity, this parameter may even be within the normal range (45–55%) for both kidneys. The aim of this study was therefore to assess diagnostic usefulness of the original, normalized, absolute parameter proportional to the value of renal clearance function (K) in the evaluation of obstructive nephropathy in a group of patients with bilateral uropathy.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: 16 healthy volunteers (32 kidneys) without history of kidney diseases were examined to determine normative value of K index. Then, 8 patients (16 kidneys) with bilateral obstructive uropathy found in standard dynamic renal scintigraphy performed using 111 MBq of 99mTc-EC (cumulative renographic curve that continued rising or dropped by less than 50% after i.v. administration of Furosemide) were examined. For each of the subjects 60 sequential 20s images were obtained, which were then assessed using an original method of post-processing scintigraphic data. It included normalization of renographic curves to the area under the heart curve. Subsequently, these normalized values from the uptake phase (between 2nd and 3rd minute) were inserted into the linear regression equation, from which K index was obtained.

RESULTS: In healthy volunteers the average value of K index was 0.23 ± 0.05. The value of 0.13 (mean –2 SD) was taken as the lower limit of the norm. Values below that limit suggest obstructive nephropathy. In patients with bilateral obstructive uropathy, 5 kidneys met the conventional criteria of nephropathy (DRF < 45%), while 11 kidneys had DRF within normal range. K index was below the norm in 9 kidneys (including 4 kidneys with low and 5 with normal DRF), while its value was normal in 7, including one kidney with reduced DRF (37%). K index changed the diagnosis in 6 kidneys out of 16 (38%).

CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results indicate usefulness of K index in diagnosis of obstructive nephropathy in patients with bilateral obstructive uropathy. For further evaluation of clinical value of this method, it is planned to examine a larger group of patients with varying degrees of renal parenchymal function impairments.

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Keywords

hydronephrosis; radioisotope renography; radiopharmaceuticals; technetium Tc 99m-ethylenedicysteine

About this article
Title

Application of normalized values of kidney clearance function in the diagnosis of bilateral obstructive nephropathy — a preliminary report

Journal

Nuclear Medicine Review

Issue

Vol 21, No 2 (2018)

Pages

92-95

Published online

2018-07-31

DOI

10.5603/NMR.a2018.0021

Pubmed

30070348

Bibliographic record

Nucl. Med. Rev 2018;21(2):92-95.

Keywords

hydronephrosis
radioisotope renography
radiopharmaceuticals
technetium Tc 99m-ethylenedicysteine

Authors

Paweł Cichocki
Krzysztof Filipczak
Marian Surma
Anna Płachcińska
Jacek Kuśmierek

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