open access

Vol 23, No 1 (2020)
Original articles
Published online: 2020-01-15
Submitted: 2019-10-29
Accepted: 2020-01-09
Get Citation

Referral to radioisotope examination as a source of additional radiation exposure for staff

Pawel Gadzicki, Wiesław Tryniszewski, Michał Świeczewski
DOI: 10.5603/NMR.a2020.0003
·
Pubmed: 32779170
·
Nucl. Med. Rev 2020;23(1):21-24.

open access

Vol 23, No 1 (2020)
Original articles
Published online: 2020-01-15
Submitted: 2019-10-29
Accepted: 2020-01-09

Abstract

Background: Every exposure of human to ionizing radiation increases the likelihood of deterministic sequelae. At the same time, it is associated with the risk of stochastic effects. Consequently, this can lead to cancer, mainly of the hematopoietic system. Organs or tissues show a different affinity for gamma radiation. There are many technical and organizational measures which minimize the impact of this radiation on people and especially on the staff of the nuclear medicine laboratory. Materials and methods: The study was based on 208 referrals to the scintigraphic laboratory, which were executed between 26.09.2018 and 13.11.2018 in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Military Medical Academy Memorial Teaching Hospital of the Medical University of Lodz – Central Veterans` Hospital. Referrals concerned scintigraphic tests of bones, salivary glands, parathyroid glands, myocardial perfusion, somatostatin receptor analogues, renoscintigraphic and lymphoscintigraphic tests. In case of each referral, radiation power was measured at a distance of approx. 10 cm with the use of a calibrated Geiger-Muller detector. Measurements were performed immediately after the end of the last examination each day. Daily measurement of the background radiation dose was also a standard procedure. For calculations, this value was averaged to 0.18µSv/h. Based on the above measurements, a statistical analysis of all data was performed. Obtained data was also analysed after it was ascribed to the person complexing radiopharmaceuticals on a given day. The annual dose for a radiopharmacist is 0.12 mSv, for a technician 0.35 mSv and for a doctor 0.45 mSv. Results: The average radiation dose received every working day by the staff was 11.49 µSv/h. After considering the average distance from the potential source of exposure (50 cm), this power decreased to 0.46µSv/h. In order to calculate the quarterly and annual radiation dose, it was assumed that the employee worked 250 days a year. Conclusions: Medical records may pose an additional personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. Physicians are the most vulnerable group of employees. The way of radiopharmacists work contributes to the contamination of medical records.

Abstract

Background: Every exposure of human to ionizing radiation increases the likelihood of deterministic sequelae. At the same time, it is associated with the risk of stochastic effects. Consequently, this can lead to cancer, mainly of the hematopoietic system. Organs or tissues show a different affinity for gamma radiation. There are many technical and organizational measures which minimize the impact of this radiation on people and especially on the staff of the nuclear medicine laboratory. Materials and methods: The study was based on 208 referrals to the scintigraphic laboratory, which were executed between 26.09.2018 and 13.11.2018 in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Military Medical Academy Memorial Teaching Hospital of the Medical University of Lodz – Central Veterans` Hospital. Referrals concerned scintigraphic tests of bones, salivary glands, parathyroid glands, myocardial perfusion, somatostatin receptor analogues, renoscintigraphic and lymphoscintigraphic tests. In case of each referral, radiation power was measured at a distance of approx. 10 cm with the use of a calibrated Geiger-Muller detector. Measurements were performed immediately after the end of the last examination each day. Daily measurement of the background radiation dose was also a standard procedure. For calculations, this value was averaged to 0.18µSv/h. Based on the above measurements, a statistical analysis of all data was performed. Obtained data was also analysed after it was ascribed to the person complexing radiopharmaceuticals on a given day. The annual dose for a radiopharmacist is 0.12 mSv, for a technician 0.35 mSv and for a doctor 0.45 mSv. Results: The average radiation dose received every working day by the staff was 11.49 µSv/h. After considering the average distance from the potential source of exposure (50 cm), this power decreased to 0.46µSv/h. In order to calculate the quarterly and annual radiation dose, it was assumed that the employee worked 250 days a year. Conclusions: Medical records may pose an additional personnel exposure to ionizing radiation. Physicians are the most vulnerable group of employees. The way of radiopharmacists work contributes to the contamination of medical records.

Get Citation

Keywords

: radiation exposure , radiation protection, lens exposure to radiation, medical staff exposure to radiation.

About this article
Title

Referral to radioisotope examination as a source of additional radiation exposure for staff

Journal

Nuclear Medicine Review

Issue

Vol 23, No 1 (2020)

Pages

21-24

Published online

2020-01-15

DOI

10.5603/NMR.a2020.0003

Pubmed

32779170

Bibliographic record

Nucl. Med. Rev 2020;23(1):21-24.

Keywords

: radiation exposure
radiation protection
lens exposure to radiation
medical staff exposure to radiation.

Authors

Pawel Gadzicki
Wiesław Tryniszewski
Michał Świeczewski

References (16)
  1. Kuśmierek J, Płachcińska A. Patient exposure to ionising radiation due to nuclear medicine cardiac procedures. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 2012; 15(1): 71–74.
  2. Mattsson S. Introduction: The Importance of Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine. Radiation Protection in Nuclear Medicine. 2012: 1–3.
  3. Saha G. Physics and Radiobiology of Nuclear Medicine. 2006.
  4. Medvedec M. General Risks with Radiation, CERN training materials . https://indico.cern.ch/event/446925/contributions/1940127/attachments/1159037/1667827/19_Mario_Medvedec_General_Risks_with_Radiation.pdf.
  5. The SPC Book — Statistical Process, Qualitran Professional Services Inc. 1999.
  6. Sanghangthum T, Suriyapee S, Srisatit S, et al. Statistical process control analysis for patient-specific IMRT and VMAT QA. J Radiat Res. 2013; 54(3): 546–552.
  7. Wheeler DJ, Chambers DS. Understanding Statistical Process Control, Addison‐Wesley, Avon (UK). 1990.
  8. Frasch G, Petrová K. Dose trends in occupational radiation exposure in Europe results from the ESOREX project. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007; 125(1-4): 121–126.
  9. International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA training material on radiation protection in PET/CT. Lecture 8 on staff and public doses. http://rpop.iaea.org.
  10. Janeba D, Hermanská J, Belohlávek O. Personal dosimetry in the PET Centre Prague. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 2001; 4(2): 105–107.
  11. Worgul BV, Kundiyev YI, Sergiyenko NM, et al. Cataracts among Chernobyl clean-up workers: implications regarding permissible eye exposures. Radiat Res. 2007; 167(2): 233–243.
  12. Chodick G, Bekiroglu N, Hauptmann M, et al. Risk of cataract after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation: a 20-year prospective cohort study among US radiologic technologists. Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 168(6): 620–631.
  13. Nakashima E, Neriishi K, Minamoto A. A reanalysis of atomic-bomb cataract data, 2000-2002: a threshold analysis. Health Phys. 2006; 90(2): 154–160.
  14. Cucinotta FA, Manuel FK, Jones J, et al. Space Radiation and Cataracts in Astronauts. Radiation Research. 2001; 156(5): 460–466.
  15. ICRP (2011) Statement on tissue reactions. ICRP ref 4825-3093-1464 (Approved April 2011). International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA training material on radiation protection in PET/CT. Lecture 8 on staff and public doses. http://rpop.iaea.org.
  16. European Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom on basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation and repealing. Directives 89/618/Euratom, 90/641/Euratom, 96/29/Euratom, 97/43/Euratom and 2003/122/ Euratom. Official Journal of the European Union. 2014; L13: 1–17.

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

By "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., Świętokrzyska 73 street, 80–180 Gdańsk, Poland

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl