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Fetal foramen ovale flap tracings, as determined by M-mode echocardiography between weeks 24 and 39 of gestation

Maria Respondek-Liberska12, Oskar Sylwestrzak2
DOI: 10.33963/KP.a2022.0086
Pubmed: 35366001
  1. Department for Fetal Malformations’ Diagnoses & Prevention, Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland
  2. Department for Prenatal Cardiology, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital, Research Institute, Łódź, Poland

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Fetal foramen ovale flap tracings, as determined by M-mode echocardiography between weeks 24 and 39 of gestation


Kardiologia Polska (Polish Heart Journal)


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Maria Respondek-Liberska
Oskar Sylwestrzak

References (14)
  1. Sontakke Y. Textbook of Human Embryology. CBS Publishers & Distributors, London 2018: 180–181.
  2. Phillipos EZ, Robertson MA, Still KD. The echocardiographic assessment of the human fetal foramen ovale. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1994; 7(3 Pt 1): 257–263.
  3. Wilson AD, Rao PS, Aeschlimann S. Normal fetal foramen flap and transatrial Doppler velocity pattern. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1990; 3(6): 491–494.
  4. Kiserud T, Rasmussen S. Ultrasound assessment of the fetal foramen ovale. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 17(2): 119–124.
  5. Allan LD, Joseph MC, Boyd EG, et al. M-mode echocardiography in the developing human fetus. Br Heart J. 1982; 47(6): 573–583.
  6. Yuan SM, Xu ZY. Fetal arrhythmias: prenatal evaluation and intrauterine therapeutics. Ital J Pediatr. 2020; 46(1): 21.
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  8. Respondek-Liberska M. Fetal M-mode echocardiography of atria in normal heart anatomy and no functional abnormalities. Prenatal Cardiology. 2020; 10(1): 19–23.
  9. Schmidt KG, Silverman NH, Rudolph AM. Assessment of flow events at the ductus venosus-inferior vena cava junction and at the foramen ovale in fetal sheep by use of multimodal ultrasound. Circulation. 1996; 93(4): 826–833.
  10. Sutton MS, Groves A, MacNeill A, et al. Assessment of changes in blood flow through the lungs and foramen ovale in the normal human fetus with gestational age: a prospective Doppler echocardiographic study. Br Heart J. 1994; 71(3): 232–237.
  11. Mekjarasnapha M, Traisrisilp K, Luewan S, et al. Reference ranges for fetal septum primum excursion from 14 to 40 weeks' gestation. J Ultrasound Med. 2013; 32(10): 1729–1734.
  12. Słodki M, Axt-Fliedner R, Zych-Krekora K, et al. International Prenatal Cardiology Collaboration Group. New method to predict need for Rashkind procedure in fetuses with dextro-transposition of the great arteries. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 51(4): 531–536.
  13. Sylwestrzak O, Słodki M, Respondek-Liberska M. Maximal velocity of fetal pulmonary venous blood flow. Prenatal Cardiology. 2019; 9(1): 17–19.
  14. Pristipino C, Filice FB. Long-term benefits and risks in patients after persistent foramen ovale closure: a contemporary approach to guide clinical decision making. Kardiol Pol. 2021; 79(3): 248–254.


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