open access

Vol 72, No 3 (2021)
Review article
Published online: 2021-09-29
Submitted: 2021-07-31
Accepted: 2021-09-09
Get Citation

Medical assessment of fitness to dive after COVID-19

Jarosław Krzyżak1, Krzysztof Korzeniewski23
DOI: 10.5603/IMH.2021.0041
·
Pubmed: 34604993
·
International Maritime Health 2021;72(3):223-227.
Affiliations
  1. Polish Society of Hyperbaric Medicine and Technology, Gdynia, Poland
  2. Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland
  3. Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, Poland

open access

Vol 72, No 3 (2021)
DIVING/UNDERWATER MEDICINE Review article
Published online: 2021-09-29
Submitted: 2021-07-31
Accepted: 2021-09-09

Abstract

Since the global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection started, millions of people globally have become infected. It must not be forgotten that thousands of those affected are commercial or recreational divers. A severe COVID-19 seriously affects the respiratory system and the pulmonary parenchyma but it may also involve the cardiovascular and the blood coagulation system. For this reason, many divers and hyperbaric medicine specialists are becoming increasingly concerned about a diver’s ability to safely return to diving after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. The article presents current guidelines for diving fitness health assessment after a COVID-19 both for active and prospective divers, with particular emphasis on the types of diagnostic procedures and tests to be performed in cases of asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 as well as in patients who have recovered from a symptomatic COVID-19.

Abstract

Since the global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection started, millions of people globally have become infected. It must not be forgotten that thousands of those affected are commercial or recreational divers. A severe COVID-19 seriously affects the respiratory system and the pulmonary parenchyma but it may also involve the cardiovascular and the blood coagulation system. For this reason, many divers and hyperbaric medicine specialists are becoming increasingly concerned about a diver’s ability to safely return to diving after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. The article presents current guidelines for diving fitness health assessment after a COVID-19 both for active and prospective divers, with particular emphasis on the types of diagnostic procedures and tests to be performed in cases of asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 as well as in patients who have recovered from a symptomatic COVID-19.

Get Citation

Keywords

diving, fitness, health assessment, COVID-19, recommendations

About this article
Title

Medical assessment of fitness to dive after COVID-19

Journal

International Maritime Health

Issue

Vol 72, No 3 (2021)

Article type

Review article

Pages

223-227

Published online

2021-09-29

DOI

10.5603/IMH.2021.0041

Pubmed

34604993

Bibliographic record

International Maritime Health 2021;72(3):223-227.

Keywords

diving
fitness
health assessment
COVID-19
recommendations

Authors

Jarosław Krzyżak
Krzysztof Korzeniewski

References (11)
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  2. Bennett PB, Cronje FJ, Campbell ES. Assessment of Diving Medical Fitness for Scuba Divers and Instructors: Medical, Physical, Physiological, Psychological. Best Publishing Company, USA 2006.
  3. Polak SB, Van Gool IC, Cohen D, et al. A systematic review of pathological findings in COVID-19: a pathophysiological timeline and possible mechanisms of disease progression. Mod Pathol. 2020; 33(11): 2128–2138.
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  9. Shi S, Qin Mu, Shen Bo, et al. Association of cardiac injury with mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Cardiol. 2020; 5(7): 802–810.
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) 2020 interim case definition. https://www.cdc.gov/ nndss/conditions/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/case-definition/2020/ (Approved April 5, 2020).
  11. European Underwater and Baromedical Society, European Committee for Hyperbaric Medicine. EUBS & ECHM position statement on recreational and professional diving after the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. http://www.echm.org/documents (Accessed: 05 Jan 2021).

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