Vol 9, No 2 (2018)
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Published online: 2018-08-17

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Alterations of epigenetic mechanisms in acute myeloid leukemia

Kamil Wiśniewski1, Emilia Białopiotrowicz, Joanna Góra-Tybor1
Hematologia 2018;9(2):100-109.


Epigenetic regulation influences gene expression without changing the nucleotide sequence of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The most important epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, modifications of histone proteins and non-coding RNAs. The dysregulation of the above mentioned processes plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mutations in the genes that are essential for epigenetic regulations are common in 70% of patients with AML. The most frequent mutations involve the DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1/2 and ASXL1 genes. Their presence or absence may constitute a vital prognostic factor in the future as well as become a potential basis for targeted therapies. The present paper manifests the importance of epigenetic alterations in the development of acute myeloid leukemia and their impact on the course of the disease. The article also discusses some possibilities for the use of epigenetic modifications in the AML therapy.

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